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Governor of the State of J^orth-Carolina, 

This Memoir is respectfully inscribed, 
Bjr his Friend, 


Nov ember y 181?, 

FOR thirty 3'ears past, lae climate and soil of Xorth-Carolins^ 
ii:ivi; V-vtu r.iuchr underrated, and at no timtrliavehtr physical 
r. sources been undei-stood.' She has sent half a million ut' her 
iiih;»!)itants to people the Wilderness of the West; and it was 
hi t UMtii the rage tor emigration alxited, that the public atten- 
tion %vas directed to the nnprovement ot those advantages, and 
to the appreciation ot those blessings, which Providence has 
flanted in abund snce within her own bosom. The delusion 
i" laVor of new Countries, which has dr..ined our population, 
i- passing away; goo^l sense is fetiirnin;*, and we arc begin- 
IV. .i;\ S'.rir.usly to refl< ct how we may make our fortunes AtT^, 
jrs'--art of going- to hunt for them in a Wilderness six hun- 
d cd or a thousar.d miles distant. This good sense biing<» 
VKh it a love for the State ami a dtslre to honor her by ge- 
nerous eflforts to unfold her physical and trioral capacitivs — » 
( attentixm has so long been directed to the country to the 
^V<.sr, that we are astonished to find how little v/e knov/ oi:' 
K rih-Caroliiia ; and still more astonished to look back and 
»v e how indi^Ftrent we have been to procure information. . It 
is with sharrTe we now reflect that only a fev/ vcars ago, the: 
General Assembly refused to aid two enterprising individualR 
to compile a ?Vlap of the Slate;' and that had i: not been foi* 
the generous aid of two Gentlemen, David Stone and Pete!" 
Browne, Ksquires, (to v^honi this Mnp is dedicated) it would 
not have been compiled,' It is mortifying to look aro!>nd and 
witness the general ignorance which prevails of the resources 
nv.d character of the State : to see, both in the Legislature anr* 
out of it, men of respectable '.mderstandinff, almost totally ig- 
norant of' our Geographical Situation, of the state of our Po- 
pulation, our Finances, our Agriculture, our Gommerce, our 
Soil and our Ciiiiiate — We thank Heaven that a change is tak- 
ing place, and that we begin to he as anxious to urquire ?/ 
knowledge of our resources and of our rapacities for improve- 
ment, as we iiave fttretofore been intiin'erent, In prop'>rtinrv' 
fis this knowledge shall tjc acquired, vvill ourre';pe/;t for N!>rih- 
C;ir li'.ia l)e increased ; and our resolutions strengthened to rea? 
tp bcr prosptrify and character by a bold and vigorous sys.' 
titnV oi polic)-— -The ialc war first roused 'ts to active estrtjom* 


The erithubiubm wiih which that event iiibpired us, gave ad- 
iniuanct to liberal ideas. 'I'he LegisLuui-e ot" 1815, ;tv.>i!ed 
thtiTJscives <>i this enthusiasm to commence a system oi p.j icy^ 
which hafl (or its o!^ject the prosperity and greainess of the 
Stat( . 'I'bey spr' ad ribr.^id a zerd, which ciiitmguished in a 
peculiar manner the Legislature of 1 816. They, directed the 
public ^itention to the improvement of our inttrn. I cond'ticin ; 
To the oprning of nevV" channels of intercours' : To the lon- 
structuin vJ good roads, to the opening of our rivers, to the 
improvement of c5ar inlets, to the conccnU-aiion of our com- 
merce, fltul the growth of markets at home for he productions 
of our soil — It remains to lie seen vV'hether sul^sequtut Lt^gis- 
laiurcs will foster the zeal which has been excited ; wiil lead 
on the State to respectability and greiitneSs j or suffer us to 
sink back into our former apathy, and once more to merit the 
cold neglect of the General Government, and the rt.-proach and 
contempt of our Sister States. 

When it is n collected that since the year 1SI5, the L< gis* 
lature have resolved to ecJu ate at the pubac i xpense the Daugh- 
ter of Capt.nin Blukely and the Son of Colonel Forsyth, in 
gratitude ior the devotion of those gallant men in their coun- 
try's service ; that a superb Statue of the Father of our Coun- 
try should be procured from the Chisel of the first Artist in 
the World ; that public Education should be more diligently 
attended to ; that liberal appropriations should be made for 
Internal Improvements : that our inlets, and our rivers sh(-idd 
be surveyed : that a Principal Civil Engineer should be em- 
ployed to direct the public Works of the State ; vve have rea- 
son to hope that our character is advancing; that v/t- stand 
committed not oidy to ourselves, but to our neighbors, to per- 
severe in the honorable career upon v.'hich we have enti ref]« 

Men must learn political truths in the schod of cxpf rience. 
Such is their obstinacy, that they will learn these truth:> no 
where else. The events of the year ISIO, have taught us les- 
sons of the most impressive character. If we do not profit bv 
them, we deserve to be lashed still more severely. It is true 
the distress in pecuniary matters wdiich now prevails in this 
State is not attrihatal)le to one cause only ; but it is o!>vious 
to a common observer that the greatest and most operative 
cause of this distress -is the scattered coi^diiion of our com- 
merce, and the w-mt of a home market. Ilaving no commer- 
cial city in which the staples of our soil can be exchangr d for 
foreign merchandize, our Mtrchants purchase their Goods and 
conir tct their (h bts in Cbarh ston, Pc-tersburg, Bidtimrre, Phi- 
ladelphia and 2\cw-Ywrk. Part of those dt>bts are discharged 

'^y shipments of produce : the balance in cash. Once in every 
ye?r the State is literally drained of its money to pay debts 
abroad. Our Banks not being able to do as extensive business 
bv Bank credits as is done in large coiinTiercial cities, are c^-in- 
pelled to isssue and throw into circulation thcirnotes to meet 
th: demands of commerce, Tht,r.e notes collected in imm nse 
tmmbers in other Slates are returned upon our Banks tor spe- 
. cif-; atid the Banks are compelled not only to curtail their 
cli'-:. lunts and press their dealers, that they may call in their 
notes ; but upon emergencies to suspend specie pavmenis— 
The consequence is that their notes depreciate, and merchants 
having to make remittances to other Sjates, sustain the most 
sen >us losses — N) blame is to be attached to the Banks *. th>y 
havt not issued more paper than ths ordinary demands of our 
eommer c rtquire : the evil lies in the condition of the Stace ; 
a condition vviiich, in the first place, induces the merchants to 
contract their debts in other States, and in the second place^ 
whi( h compels the Banks to do business by issues of notes, in- 
stead of di inq it by Bank credits. — The old United States Bank, 
with a capital of ten millions of dollars, and niaking an'iual 
«lividcnds of eight per cent, never had in circulation at any one 
time notes to the amount of five millions. Mere than one half 
of its business vvas done by Bank credits— Its business vvgo 
confined to the commercial cities, where a credit at Bank an- 
swered the purposes of merchants as well, and their conve- 
nience much better, than Bank notes— If North-Carolina had 
her commerce concentrated at one or two points, one or more 
large commercial cities would grow up ; markets would be 
fouod at home for the productions of the State ; foreign mer- 
chandize would be imported into the State for the demands of 
the market ; our debts would be contracted at home ; and our 
Banks would be enabled to change their course of business- 
They could give activity to the commerce of the State, and yet 
issue but a small amount of paper; and the amount issued 
would be confined in its circulation almost entirely to the State* 
To these advantages may be added another of no small moment % 
"The profit upon our commerce would be made in North-Ca- 
rolina, whereas now, it is made in other States. The annual 
profit made upon our commerce in other States, and which is 
totally lost to North-Carolina, is estimated at more than half 
a million of dollars. 

In framing a system of policy which is to extend our com- 
merce and improve our agricultare, it will be necessary i-/ keep 
an view the necessity of sustaining the credit of our Bank pa- 
per. We need not enquire whether it was wise tq substitutp 

g LVT r. 0DT7CTIQ V'' 

Bank paper in the place of the precious niet.i"!:;, for a c'ifci)?ni', 
ing medium. It is in vaiu lor us to attempt to cotaroi '.ne 
course of business in the commercial world ; and whilst every 
State }n tht^ Union, and the General Government itsuli, have 
established Bat ks, Su which the specie of the nation is clepo- 
sittd, we ought not to expect that we can adopt any svstem. by 
which this specie shall be drawn out and form a circuhiting 
snedium. Events have put this subject heyond our control, 
and we must legislate upon the stutc of things as they are, and 
xiot as we would wish them to be---Indcpendei:tly o} this con- 
sideration, it is certainly problematical whether the quantity of 
the precious metals is equal ro the present extended commerce 
of the world. For the last ten years this qvuu:.tity has greatly 
decreased, i)oth in Europe and America. 1 he trade to Iiidia» 
whiti) annualiv swallows up a large portion oi the Silver of Eu-- 
rope aivX the United States, has extended itself v/ithin the last 
ten years, during all ol which the coinage in South-America 
has been much intcrru,pted, and the supplies lo Eur- pe and the 
fji.itc JB»States have- bi. en very precarious. To this vit-w (d ihe 
rase may be added, that b'nce the close of the Revtilu'ionary 
War in 1783, the commerce of the world has probahlv doublv- d. 
and more than twice the cuantity of circulating medium is now 
r* quirtd for the purposes of commerce that was required at 
xh-xt time- -Commercial States seem to have been driven to 
the necessity of Banking, as an expedient to supply the defi- 
ciency of the precious nielals-- Thi% expedient Has betm. abus- 
ed, both in Europe and America ; but this abu?. - furnishes tiQ 
6olid argum.ent against the judicious use of this e:.:p(nnnt : 
and itia not pretended that such abuse has taken place in N-.>rth- 
Carr.lina. Our Legislature have acted with due caution in es- 
tablishing Basks; and notwithstandingthe embarrassments an" 
idvr v.'fiich those instituti ms now labour, no doubt can be en- 
tertained of the ability and integrity with which their concerns 
have been manag-d— fhe v>'riter of this Memoir has no inter- 
iiesr in anv of the Banks, except as a citizen rf the. State ; .is 
such, he feels a deep interest in their welfare. The character 
of the State is in some measure identified with the charMCtcrr 
<of its Br.nk paper; half a million of the of the Banks 
jbelongs to the State, and nearly fifty thousand dollars of the 
^public revetme are annually derived from the?e Institutions — 
They are essentially n<?cessary to the growth ot our commerce, 
and the extension of our industry ; arid their situation claims, 
in a peculiar manner, the calm and sober attention of the Le- 
gislature'— The circumstances c(/nnected with the situation of 
ibar ^anks, circumstances which the cfents of the yciir liii% 


^ave rcTidered obvious to every man of common observationj, 
iur!^!-;h one of rhe stro:iuest risasons why the Legislature should 
act promptly and decisivciy in carrying into > ffect a system of 
policy which sliall change tht- course of commtrcial business in 
NoTih-Car'lina : a systtm which shall concentrate our com- 
merce within our own territ^'ry, esiablish markets at home for 
the sale of tjur productions, and th^ purcliase of foreign rtier« 

, We inhabit a State, the soil of which is little inferior to that 
of any of the Atl^nti' States ; we have as many square miles 
of t;rvitory as the State- of Mew-York ; we have a popu!ation 
iittlr short ot seven huiltlred thousandva population iridustrious^ 
inond and int<.»ligcnt ; tew o!)jc(.tions can be urged to our'cli- 
iiiate ; v/e have fine rivers intersecting our State, affording 
chaunt Is orcomuiunicaiion from the ocean^'nat only to the heart 
but almi'st to tlic exireifiity of our territory, at sundry points, 
and oflerHig greater lacdiiies ior internal commerce than are 
tnjoyed by any of the neighboring States. VVith these ad vaa- 
tagcs at commatid, what can prevent us from becoming a rich, 
great and poweriul member of th' Union? Nothing can pre 
yent it, but our supinencss and want of public spirit. 

In North Carolina, the cultivation of the soil will form tha 
basis of public prosperity. To develope^the resources of ouy 
soil,- it is necessary to give facilities to our commerce. Indus* 
try yv'ill lie inactive whilst there is no demand for its produc- 
tions. An active commerce is the aliment of lal^our; and at 
this day, v.hcn Political Economy has attained to the rank of a 
science. Statesmen will not seek to promote the Agriculture of 
a country by Ijounties and premiums, but will turn their atten- 
tion to those ways and means by which, in the first place, the 
products oi Agriculture-can easily find a good market, and by 
which, in the second pkice, the pr Jits of that commerce wh;ch. 
iiustains the market, shall be contributory to the wealth of their 
<)wn, rather than ot other States. 

It is proposed, in thf following Memoir, to take a view of the 
internal condition of North-C.v. olina, her advantages for foreign 
commerce, fnr commrrce .with neghboring States, and for that 
commerce which is employed in the l^uying and selling of com- 
ii^odities for home consumption. Each species of commerc© 
contributes to enliven industry, and to augment the wealth of 
the State, and as such claims the attention of the Legislature — 
Thi se subjects ure treated o; in the " Fiexv of the Internal 
improvements contemplated by the Legislature^'* which has 
b^en drawn up by the Board of Commissioners, and submitted 
^ ':h'? consideration of the Principjil Engineer for the State*. 

It is farther proposed to take a view of what the Legislature 
"has thus tar done towards improving our internal condition, to 
pt'ir-t'out, in pai-t, what remains to be done, and shew the ability 
of the State to do it. This will lead to an enquiry into the 
Tesourcesof the State, and the condition of her finances--- Upon 
these subjects general remarks will be avoided. Facts taken 
from the public records of the country will be submitted ; and 
tncn who have not turned their attention to this subject, will be 
astonished to find how little our resources are und< rstood. 

Should this Blemoir contribute in the least lo cherihh a zeal 
^or the honor and prosperity of North-Carolina, it will be gra- 
tifying to the writer, whose principal ambition is, to see his 
XJaUve State assume that rank in the Union, to which she is 
entirltd b\ her physical resources, and the moral worth anf5 
luieiiigcnce ol her people. 

^P'lidt the Legislaturs hate thus fat' done on ths 
subject cf Inleriud Impror '-ments. 

AT tne close of the late W?a- with Great Britain the public- 
atl'. nuon wasclircctr-ci to the subject of Internal Imprtivcmcr.ts ; 
^nd It is a iutle remarkable, that in the winter of 1815, Ncw- 
York passed the law under wliich the Great Canal frt>m trie 
Lakes to the North River has been commenced; Virginia '.,s-. 
tablished a Fund ibr Internal Improvements and appointed a 

• Board of Public Works j and North-CaroIiua» for the first time 
since her political existence, resolvtd to appropriate a part of 
her revenues to the ImP/rovcnicnt of her Internal Condition. 
Pennsylvania had %ng before, set an example s»t" the most ho 
notable kind upon this subject. An appropriation of three 
hundrrd thousand dollars and more, for making Roads, erect- 
ing Bridges, &c. had become so frequent in that state, that her 
iniernal condition became enviable. Her Agriculture, her 
Commerce, h-rr Alanulactures, made a progress that ivas as- 
tonishing ; her industry and her wealth extended, and siie prov- 
ed, beyond all doubt, to men v/ho understood the su^'jecc, that 
one thousand dollars laid out in Internal Improvements, add 
ten thousand to the National Wealth: that liberal appropriations 
for Roads, Bridges and Canals, do not impoverish, but en^jch a 
"State; do tiot increase the public burthens, but render them. 
more light. For notwiihstanding the millions which Pcansvl- 
vania has appropriated to tnese objects, such has been the in- 
crease of her Wealth, and the product! veivess of her revenue, 
that she has been enabled almost entirely to dispense with or- 
dinary taxation, an^ to fill her Treasury f-:ora the proceeds of 
her Bank S ock. Stock in the Public Funds, Turnpike and Canal 
-St<;ck — Nen-York, riVi.lling Pennsylvania in her commerce, 
resolved to lollow her example in in^proving her internal con- 
dition. Having by repeated surveys ascertained the practica- 
bility ff opening a communication by water from Lake Erse 
to the North River, she levied taxes to raise a fund of five 
Trillions to open ihis communication. Such a resolution was 
worthy of the statesmen who proposed it and of the State whu:li 
adopted it ; and the v.ork which will be executed in pursu- 

•ance of it, wdl have no parallel either in Europe or the Unit- 
Cd Strties — Virginia determined at ihe .same time t» take ef- 

i^ t' INTKKS'AL IM i'ROV E'SiV N'ty 

fectual measurts to improve her Inl-md Nu,vig"itio!>. She fh, 
attd a lund of one and an hoif miluon, and picdgirtl her 'hnfr 
that the proceeds ot this iuud should l>ei;^jp|-:Ucd to the exrcu- 
turn oi' such Pu!)iic Works as the Le^dslatur*-. iTiight imttj trtrii 
to urn e be disposfd to patronize ; Slie cstaolished a,Bo,)j^d •;! 
Public Works to manage this fund, to employ a Principal En- 
glrtf tr and Surveyors, and to superintend :he public wor^zfi'' -f 
the State, s(* far as to have the proper plans drawn up, aiaf to 
Ttpcrt to the Legislature, from year to yejr, their progress and 
conditiofi.- Since that t'-vTic, South-Carolina has approjiriated a 
i-niHion of dollars for imp -oving ht r Internal ConcHiron, and 
has authotised an expenditjve of t\vo hundred and fifty thou'-.- 
and dollars thereof annually : leaving to h°er Principal Engi- 
neer the forming of all the plaus, and in a great degree the 
designation o! the objects, the Improvetnent of her Rivers be- 
ing t!ie main one. It rerti'.iins to be seen what North Caroli-' 
na has (lo-hii upon this subject. 

Early in the Session of the General Asst^nbly in 1815, a re 
Solution was subt"nitted on the subject of the Inland Nav igatior 
■of the State, v/hich was refei-red to a joint <select Commiuec o-. 
the tv.'o House?. "1 lie Con>nntt( e niadt- a Report, in which they 
gave a general view of the condition of tlie State and of her 
jcapacities for CoiVirnerce ; and submitted a plan for irhproving 
•her Inland Navigation. f he outlines of this plan were, 

1. That Companies should be incorporated for Improving thr 

Navigation of the Principal Rivers, u ho shoultl hold theii 

rii!;hts and priviiegf^s foj-evpr— 
•Q. That t!ie rii;!>ts and privileges of a Company should ex(Rnd 

nam the sources of a I^iver to its mtfulh, or to the iiiie of 

the State, and to ail tributary streams — 
"2, each Company should be entitled to levy such Toll, 

n,s would vie'd fifteen percent, upon the Capit!",! expended — . 

4. '.Jhat the State should snbsciibe one third partof tlse Capi- 
tai Stock of each Company. 

5. That a Board of Commiasioners shonld be apprirsted to su = 
perintend t!ie Public Works on behalf ot" the Slate; to eui- 
ploy a Principal and Assistant Engineers ; to have sarvevs 
made; and to report annually to the General Assembly t'r 
state of the Public Works, the money which had oees) ex 
pended, the proore.«s '.vhich had been made, &.c. And ru 
reconvmend, from time to time, si'ch'^ further works as they 
Plight tliink should be executed — it wa, 'further proposed 
that this Boaril should be charged with tiie duty (d colltct- 
inn- Statistical Information ot th.e Agriculture andrCoiti- 
Tiierce of the State : Inforniation rcdative to tiie Soil aut 
Qimate, &c. 


i'he C'.imnriittee proposed to give numerous details to this 
,^r>eral plan, shouid the General Asscmi)!-/ sanction the out- 
..ues-— riiu aujcct w^s novel and it underwent much investi- 
gation, paiticularly \n the HViuse of Commons, where the dis- 
cussion was animated and interesting. The Senate sanctioned 
the pi ni, biU it was rejected by the Commons. Bill, were 
then drawn up and oift r< d incorporating Companies ior th<; 
Iv.ianok- an 1 Cape-Fear Rivers, which, alter much opposition^ 
and having rettive/d sundry amt ndmcnts, were passed. Tne 
State agreed to sul^scribe tweniy-fivc thousand dollars of the 
capital stock of the Roanoke Company, and fifteen thousand 
of the Cape Company. 

The Com;nitV-e rec 'inmended a Survey of our Inlets and of 
f.lie priucipai Sounds, and Commissioners were appointed to 
fiavc a Survey m^ide of the Albemarle and Pamplico wiih in*- 
■'''Struftiirns to ascertain, if it were practicai>!e t> oprn a direct 
outl' t to the orean from the Albemarle. — J 'hn Haywood, Pe* 
ter Briiwne, William B ylan and Joseph Gales were appointed 
Commi'^sioners ta have Surveys made ol the Roanok-, Tar, 
Ncusc, Cape-Fear, Yadkin and Catawba R-Vers and wtre in» 
siru trd to have a Survey made betwen the Capc-Fcar and 
Yadkin, with a view of as> ertaining whether a communicatioti 
bv u'.itcr c >uld be opened between those Rivers — They were 
auihorised to employ one or more Surveyors, and were direct- 
ed to report to the next Gentral Asscmblv. 

Daring the Summer of 1816. a partial Survey v/as made of 
the Albemarle a;'d Croathan Sounds and of Roanoke Inlet, by 
Capt. Clarke, late of the Corps of Ensrineers. He endeavor- 
ed to learn the direction and relative influence of the currents 
along the Coast north of Cape Hatteras, a knowledge of which 
was indispensably necessary in determining the question of 
making an Outlet from the Vlbemarl - It is not understood 
what circumstances prevented Cant. Clarke from completing 
his Survey. He drew up a Map of this part of the Coast, in 
which he marked out the direction of the principal currents 
which could affect an Outlet; but their relative iorces not be- 
ing determine d, the question respecting this Outlet, so far a9 
the same depends upon a correct knowldge of those eurr- nts, 
remains in the same situation in which it was in the year 18)6, 
I'he Map of Capt. Clarke v/ill, however, be ver . useful to 'her 
Engineers who may be called up ^n to examine and determine 
this question. 

Pettr Browne, Esquire, was app(iiiued Chairman of -he 
Board of ConamJssioners charg -d with the Surveys of the pim- 

1-1< iXTSRXAL IMFilOV iiN!:.\ I .^ 

cipai Rivers, nnd the-emplojmoiit of compctLnl SuiVi-vors He- 
ing ihe first thing necessary, tl'ic Board opened a c< rrcsi>'-n- 
dencf with Gentlfmcn in thi: Novthern States, ancl Col. Ijvp.- 
jamiu F. Buldvvin of r»lass;ichiiselts was rtico'.rimcnd lo tiK-iVi. 
Upon iiii Invitcitivnn :roiV} lue lloard, Col. B:ddvviii came on^j 
and in ihe Fail of 1816, iuade Suvvi^s of the Tar and Ncust: 
Rivers. His Reports of these Surveys Averc siibrai'ted to tiitr 
General Ass mbly. of t!int}ear ; and ili^; Board tvcre cuniintr, d, 
with instructions to employ a Principal Kr<,iL.,ii;t(r l> r \h- S5<<!e 
and one or more Sar\'c\'ors< i'ht-y v/tre al-.o directed to pur- 
chase such Maps rnd Charts as thej' Height think wt.uld i)e 
list fid, and to have such other ar,d further SmveNS made as 
to them miglit seem neces'sary to the Geceral Assembl) in 
dfcterminii'g upon };lans oi Internal ImprovemtJit* 
-. The Ci'nrimitiec on Inhmd Navigation, in their report to the 
Generrd Assembly in 1816, ^ubniitted definite views of the 
iinprovtr^isnts uhioi they deemed necessary.' They rehited 

1. I'o the Improvemt'iit of oui; li'dets. 

^l. I'u (he opening of ou^ principal Rivers-^. 

G. To 1 he junction of two or snoic cf Jhose ivtv(^:\s by Cmiids. 

4. To the concciitr.ldoji (if our Cotnincrce at a fetv pu;i;ts, by 
nteans of the foregoing Inij?rovcine!)(s. 

They recornmended the continuance of the Board foraSurv;-)- 
of the Albtinarle, Croathan and Pamplico Sounds, ana Rwa- 
Doke Inlet; and the incorporation of Companies for the I'ar, 
Ntuse, Yfidkin and Catawba Rivers. Ciiarters were granud 
lor these Riveis, similar to the Charters which in 1815, had 
bten grarted for the Roanoke and Cape-Fear. ** 

The CTer.eral AsseiVibly having directed the employment of 
n Prif.cipal Engineer, the Board offered the ajpointmtnt to 
Ccl. Benjamin F. Baldwin, who declined itj, and clie rains of 
the Winter h.aving rendered a "further prosecution o^ Sur-\'e)s 
at that time inconvenient, hereturntdto Massachusetts. Tije 
xvhole of the year 1817 was consumed in fruitless endeavors 
to procure a Principal Engineer. Mr. Benjamin H. Latrobe, 
V'ho stood at the head of the Civil Engine ers i^ the Unittd 
States, and in whose ofiice many ])ron,isi!!g young mti) b;.d 
tuen educated, early adyised the Board to procure an Engi- 
3)eer fith'.r from France or England. He had received hh 
t:dvica ion in England, was well acquahued with the pro- 
gress whi h the science of Civil Engineeiitij^ had. niacle in Eu- 
rf'P' since the cmrttenc^ment of the French Revolution. The 
X3oard ■ f red the appoii tmont to IMr. Latrobe at a salary of 
three th'-usand dollars. He xleclined the appointment, but \t- 
wy politely and generously aided them with fis advice upon 

OP xoTirii-CAnoLns^A. i3 

^iV the sa'-J. cts committed to their chiirge by the General As- 
a •iibly. — Mr, i < c, the late Consul ot»th«:; CJriited States at Bor- 
ci ;uix, ha\'ing r-cnmmendecl Mr. Pagenaud, the appointment 
of Top igrapliiccii E g?neer was ofFtrred to him. Mr. Pagenaud 
was a Frcmh Xirntieman, who emigrated to the United States 
lipon th-r refitoratjon of the Brjur!)ons. He had ocen educated 
ill the Polytechnic School at Paris, and during the govcrmn'ent 
of Bonaparte;^ had heev> placed at the head of the' Topographi- 
ca! Engineers [d the D .p-artroent of the Garonne. Almost at 
the s.icrje ti:ne that Mr. pagenaud agreed to accept che ap- 
puinti^ent which the Hoard tcr.d»:red to him^ hr receive:! per- 
r.-iission to return to France, of which lie immediately availed 
hiTisclf. , . 

In'the Summcnpf I8I8, Peter^Brov/nef Esquire, ;ht Chair- 
man of the Board, sailed for EngVarj'J j and the lioard havin"* 
sj)ent eighteeJn naonths in fruitless cflorts to procure'^ Princi- 
pal Engineer in i^e United States, rcques'ed Mr. Browne to 
engage 6ne in England : He was also requested to engage a 
C'lnptrtent SurveyoKand Draftsmaii, and to purchase for the 
S ::'Cte in Londo'}, a complete set of Mathcmlitical Instrurru-nts 
required forth'- Engineer's Department. The General As- 
sembly, (sf ISir, *.n c/nnemplation of Mr. Browne's absence fr;!!n 
thK Stat«, added Archibald D. Murr/ney, Esquire, to the 
^ Board, and upon the, sailing of r.Ir. Browne, he was appointed 
Chairman o^he^ Board pro. tem. .- < 

The Companies w.hich were incorporated 'in 1 8 L'? and 1816, 
liegan to !>e "^rganiseil, and were anxious to commence their 
WmiU It became heeessarj^ therefore, to commence the 
Surveys ordered' by the G.eneral Assembly. If Mr. Browne 
should succeed in <fngagi!<g a Principal Engineer, the Bi^aid 
considered 'that this Engineer, upon his arrival, should be oc-' 
copied in plaaning the'^PiiijlicV/orks and superintending their 
ex-cutioiV-: that jjr-c^it part of his time musf in this way be ta- 
li en up, and that m* could' not even plan a public work without 
the aid of .In accwrate^'Survey— For these reasons, the Board 
availed themselves of the best talents w-hich they could iiring 
into their service, and the Surveys were commenced in July 
18-18. These Surveys %vcre directed 

1. 'To (he Ya'Jkin. 

2. To tlic Cape-Fear. 

5. To the Country between tiic Yadkin and C-ipc-Fcar. 

4, Roanoke and Pungo. 

5. — Uoannke and Tar. 

fj, Xar and Ncusc. 

Mr. William Terry made a partial Survey of the Cape-Feae 
hetvv-eea the Towns of Fayf>itev:lle and Haywood, and of th '. 


Yailkia between Skeen^s and St^kts's Fv-rries — He rtlso n^zsf' 
tained the relative levels of the YitdkiU at Skcen's Ffciry and 
the Uharce at*s Ford. 

Messrs. J'hu Hix n nnil Hiram ji-nings ex'-mined ih'? Yad- 
kin, trora Wilki sborough ti> the South Carolina line, and re- 
commei ded plans ti imj)roving its Navigation, except at the 
Narrows ar.d Falls. 

The Kevcrend Jiiseph Caldwell nrd IMr. Elisha Mitrhdl of 
our University, made a Survey ot the Narrows auc' F..iij of 
the Yadkin. 

M'. ssrs. Josiatban Price and ^«Voodsnr. Ck mons Jii:ah a par- 
tial Survey ■' f che country bt-twrtn the Uhavei and' Dt ep Ki- 
vers, and asc^ rtained the rf-lative levels o! the bids ai ti ose 
Kivers at sundry poifnts — They also made Surveys hc-tv .ii the 
Roanoke ai d Pungo, tb.t Roanoke and Tar. and tht T: v : ■ d 
Neusc Rivers. 

Rr ports of these Surveys, w th Maps and Pn files, w re su')~ 
juil^ed to ihr Gener;il Assemi)ly ol i81P>, and tiirtc thousand 
copies of xh. Reports were ordered to he printed for disirdju- 
tion among th several Counties. 

A short lime before the Meeting of the G' nrr:d Assetn'dy 
in 1818, the Board received a Letti r frc m Pel' r B:-ownt, Es- 
quire, in which he stat^ d th,e great dt mand for Civil Engineers 
in Europe, the difficulty of procuring them, and the high pri- 
ces which were paid for their services j that since the ternii- 
D ition of the late War upon that Continent, the respective Go- 
vernments had turned their attention to the Imprc vtinent f;f 
ihfir Interna! Coidition, and given employment to all thtir 
eminent Civil Engineers : that he found he could not cngv»ge 
a Principal Engineer for North-Carolina upo/i a salary wh/ch 
the General Assrmblv would approve of, and requested Jur- 
ther instru tions — The B ard suiimiited the subject to the Ge* 
neral Assembh, with a request that an opiidon should be ex- 
pression as to the salary which the Board should engage to 
pay—'The Communication of the Board was referred to the 
Committee on Internal Improvements, who reported a resolu- 
tion that the subject should lie lift to the disiretiftn of the 
Board ; and this resolution being agreed to by the two Hou- 
ses notice of it was immediately transmitted to Mr. Browne, 

Early in the year 1819, Mr. J' hn Couty, who had been in 
the service of the Principal Engineer ( f Virgin a, was employ- 
€d by the Board to prosecute the Surve\fi which had l)een com- 
menced in 18' 8. He was instructed to make the Survey be- 
tween the Prdee and Cape-Fe.r for the Lumber Rivt r Canal j 
Ko make a Survey of the Yadkin at the NisTrows and Falis^oD 

t>F X»RTI£-C\nOLTNA. 17 

ttic Eastern skle of the Rivtr (Messrs. Caldwell and Mitchell 
having confined thtir survey chiefly to the Western side) : to 
make a Survey of ih^ Ptilte from the Uharee to the South- 
Carolina line ; and to make a Survey oi the Country between 
the Catawba and Pcdec, by the way of the Rocky Kiver— The 
Reports of tiuse Surveys, with Mr. Couty's Maps and Pro- 
files, will be laid bel'ore the next General Assembiy. 

It has been an object with the Board to make taese Surveys 
auxiliary to the compiling ot an accurate Map oi the State; 
and tHev will be found eminently useful in this respect, inde- 
pendently of the main object for which they were ordered by 
the Gentral Asseml^h . It is very desirable to have such a 
Map. Virginia has lately voted fitly thousand dollars for the 
compilation of an a curate Map of th?t Siatt, notwithstanding 
the fj'.c- M:ip which Mr Madison the iate President of Wil" 
liam and Marv College, ijubli'^hed under the patronage of the 
Legislature, a few yt-ars ago. The Map ot North-Carolina, 
bv Messrs. Price and Strother, has an accuracy not to hava 
been expecud at the time it was ct nipiled. At that time, lit- 
tle w^as kiitjwn (.f the Gci.>giaphy <>! the Western parts of the 
State; and tiiere is on.-sixth part of the T'^rritory of the 
State, of which this Map affords a very indifferent representa- 
tion, it is i-hat part which lies between the Blue Ridge and 
the Great Ridge of Ivlcuntains, alcmg the summit of which 
Tur.s the line dividing North-Camlina from Tennessee, and :n 
which lie the counties of Ashe, Bur.combe, Haywood, part of 
Burke,- and all the Cherokee Country within the limits of this 
State. Mr. Strother visited this part of the State, and ob'ain- 
ed tHe best iniormation he tould from the Inhabitants, as well 
as t)y his own observation of the ranges of Mountains and the 
direction of the vv'ater courses: But the population was small 
and scattered, there Wtrc few public highwavs. and it was im- 
possible for him to obtain information for an accurate Map. 
\\ iihin this section of the State, there are more thaii five iriil- 
lions of acres ; its territory equals in extent that of the Judi- 
cial districts of Edenton and Ncwbern ; and some of the finest 
lands in Nnrth-Carolina are found here — Thv whole is a rich 
moiiiitamous country.— -The writer of this Memoir, although 
he had scught many opportunities of obtaining information, 
had hut a very imperfect idea of its extent or value, until he 
visit d it in the fall of 1819. It is a portion of the State lit- 
tle kn'>v/n to the people <^>f the Miodle, Southern and Eastero 
Cou!) is: But iis extensive territory and growing population, 
added to the circumstan t that there art at least a million of 
aci:es belonging to the State within the Cherokee Nation of 

Indians, rei'iclcr this cour/tr} a j v . 'o[ pcculinr consirVr-tlo:: 
iffhh the Legislature. 

Upon this subject, it ran) be proper to rem-art, rhai no liine 
«houid be loijt in settling- iht. Sou'.h-^Vestcrn Boivui:u-y,- i cT'tvetu 
this St':ue and TetiMt:ssee. By the cessl'ott -Act'bt" 1789, this 
Jioundasy is'riot defined beyond the Great Unica Moinitain. 
-Vrom tiiut Mountain to the line oi Georgia, the aci ot • 17^9, 
declares the hue shall run on the. summit of the pfincit>al ridge 
of McuTitains. But there are st v. r.^1 rjcigts ; and irom the 
1/iiv. Survey made by the S'ates oi Tennessee and Gtjtjrgia ior 
the purpose nf settling the lines between those Stutt!>, it ap- 
l^e-ars that Tennessee hjts selected a rid'ge of Mountains iti<;t 
ha'^nerctofc re been cionsidered by us as' -.vithin our .itr- 
fjtr.xy^ aiVd' inrludirig a large portion of the fnost va'luabie htnr's 
v/ithin the Cherokee 'Couriry in N'''nh-Carol)na — A s the Che - 
l;oVte Title is (^n the point of beiiui; txtinguished. ii become?; 
ji n'Jritter cf interesting concern to u. vo liave ihe confli ting 
"claims of Tennessee aiad this State ep; edUy s^^uled— When 
this shall be done, the bou^^daries of North C:trolnia will be 

In making the' Surveys rrdcred ly the Gtneral ^ ss'-ini'iy, 
it i^-.s also been an object with the Board, to r<nci«.r those 
revs suhservi'^-nt to the interests of Science, by co^Ktting i; ,- 
iV;'rr,aticn ol the Geolorjy rtnd Mineral;Tgy of the State Bi.t 
•thus far they haVe found it inipo;5sible to real-ize th.. ir wi^ht s 
in this respect. They 'hope,' however, should the G^neraTA'-- 
isrml-rly continue the Boa'rd, to i;e able to colkct uiuch usuiul 
ir.fornnation fu'tht^r^e subjects. 

In July, 1H19.' Mr. Hnmikon Fnltnn arrived frooni Europe, 
brirgir g letters to fho Board from Peter Browne, Esquiie, in 
'A'hich ht- istated, th t in pursuance of the pnvVers giVcrt to him, 
llr had engaged Mr. Fulton as the Trincip-Ai Engmeer for the 
SVnt'e, at tht salary of _-j^ 1200 Sterling; ■, and Mr Roben K. 
BrazJer, as Surveyor,' at the salaryv'of _^oOO ; — That he h;;rl 
found it )mp<if:sible to engage a man of conipetent talents at a 
sfrtaller'salary.,and that neither of the two Principal Engineers 
of Great'Britaii? could be l^ad at a salary of fifty thousand dol- 
lars per rear — Mr. Fulton .been tdCrcated for his Profts- 
ni n by Mr. Reonie, 'and 'had been long in the service of Mr. 
Telfori-', the two Principal Engineers, not only of Great-Bri- 
tain, 1 ut of I~;ir(,pe ; h". had been for many years cninloyed in 
Javipp' out :\nd mvking Canals, Locks, Bridge?, ^c. : in Drain- 
incr "*^'arshes and Fens, n^aking Turnpikes and Rail-Ways — ■ 
Ht liad'been employed bv tlie Board of Admiralty, at I^er- 
triiidasnd Malta, and had laid out for the Iving of.Sweden the 

OF XGllTH-CAnOLINA. _^ w' « A 1^ 

Great Canal from GvittLiibi'.rg «e» tlv" North Sta^ T!ie ': ard 
-cosiiirmcd the contract made by Mi^ Browne wii!) Mr. Fu ioo, 
and ditw up for l-i ni "the Instructions Avhich are found in thfe 
foil ••^■'r^g "■ View of thc'Litcrnal Improvements contcmphdcdbu 
ihe Lcf^i^laturc of Nofih Carolina?'* ' 

Mr. Fulton siatfd l^ the !loard, that he must niakc lilh-jse'lf 
Scquninted, in the fiist ])lace, with the Geography of the Slate ; 
tli^;.. siu:h a krvovvlcdgp was indispensably necessary, before lie 
( -uic^ ohm the Irtierual rmprovenients \i-hich the Legislature 
I oiiti. mplattd. , H^J was therefore advised to visit the princi- 
|)c.i ikivers, andi.g^ive thciria cUtsor\- examination, and instruct 
the 5>tverai Companies as to the imr.udiate Works in which 
they were eiigaged ; to traverse thc^ State as extensive iy ;".o he 
could; and Icat n not only its Geography but its I'opograpiiy at 
ihf;sc- p' ints where Publir Works were contem])lated. In pu;- 
f.uance oi" this adv-iGe, Mr. Fulton visited the Nt use, t4>^ 'i'ar, 
li.e Cap' -Ftar, the Yadkin and the Catawl.'a ; and the result: 
of hi's txamiviaiion oi those iiivers ^vill be laid btibre the ue^it 
Generd' Aasembh'. 



IIamilton Fulton, Esq. 

T^IFj Comniissioners herewith submit 
to you, a Vie'.v of (he Internal iiiiproveinents conttMnplured by tiie 
Legislatute of Nortli-Carolina, vvili) such renriiks tiiereMsn a.* ti)ty 
suppose nia_v aid you in your enquiries upon tl^e several subjects 
committed to your care as Friticipal Kngineer of t'se State. 
Witb inucii esteem, I atn, Sir, 
Your obedient Servarii, 

A. D. MURPHEY, Chairman, S^'c 
August 10, 1819. 

ti View of the Internal Improvements contempUded 

by the Legislature of JS%rih-C(troluui, 

The Internal Improvements contennplated by the Legislature 
of North-Carolina, relate 

1. To the Inlets on our Coast. 

2. To tlie Sounds aton<j; the Coast. 

3. To tl.e Priu^ary llivers. 

4. To the junction ol two or more of those llivers by navigable 

5. To the Public Highways. 

6. To the Draining of tiie Marshes and Swamps of the Eastern 
and Sfjuthern Counties. 

In the application of the Public Revenue to the various ob- 
jects of Internal Improvement, the Legislature has had due 
regard to the several sections of the State, and is anxious to 
give eifect to a system which is general, and at the sanic'tirae 
definite. One part of the State requires Improvements very 
different from thbse required in anothtr. The counties bor 
denng on the Mountains are at a distance from Markets, and 
have to rely on land-carriage for getting their productions tJ 
thi m. These counties require good turnpike roads. 

The middle counties are intersected by fine Rivers, which 
are now useless for the purpose ot Navigation, on account of 
obstructions which nature has placed in them. Those coun- 
ties require those obstructions to be removed and the Rivers 
to be made Navigable. The counties to the South and Eastj 
suffer disease and pestilence from their numerous and exten- 
sive Swamps and Marshes: their finest lands lif neglecte^, 
^nd labour, instead of being directed to the pursuits of a pr«? 


;«iuc'ive Agriculture, is tarried to the making of Tar and the 
<collecting of Turptrntine. All the coiiulirs of the State are in- 
terested M improving the inlets upon our Coast, and concen- 
trating at a fcw points ur scatt-r' d Commerce. Individual 
capita! is insiifBcient to cllect any of those great objects. They 
require the resources ot the ijtate ; and in no way can those 
resources he so well applied as in malcmg impr vcm.nts, 
which shall aid the health and raise the moral condition of 
Our populati<)n ; which shall give encouragcineat to industry 
and lacilitics to Commerce. 

The Inlets on our Coast. 

T^he plans of improvement for ihe interior of the State, ar© 
intimately connected with the Inlets on our Coast. At pre^ 
sent, there are only two Inlets from which there is a coinmu«- 
nicati(m with the Interior — These are at Ocracocke and Cape- 
Fear. There are two other Inlets, Old Topsail at B.-auiort, 
and Bogue at Swansborough, to which attention is invited, for 
reasons which will hereafter be explained. Fhe Inlet at Cape- 
Fear is the best in the State, and is better situate than any 
•ther tor the general Commerce ot the middle and we tern 
counties. At the mourh of the Caor -Fear ih-r- are two In- 
lets, one over the nrjain Bar at Smithville, having a depth of 
seventeen feet water at high tides ; the other lately formed, 
and therefore called the New Inlet, having a depth of thirteea 
feet water ov^■r^the Bar. This Inlet is thounrht to be gradu>». 
^Ily deepening, and in the course of the next fiftv years will 
probably have eighteen feet of water. It is protected l)y the 
promontory and shoals of Cape llatteras from the North-East- 
wardly currents of the Oulf Stream ; and the current s tting 
through it has its deposits carried to the South bv the trdclf 
current which sets down the coast from Cape Look-out, which 
current lodges these deposits upon the Northern part of the: 
promontory and shoals of Cap' -Fear. 

At the main Bar at Smithville, may be seen very distinctly^ 
the operation of those causes which are constantly changing 
the condition of our Co ist — The Gulpli Stream, runnini^ wittx 
a velocity of nearly three miles in an hour, sweeps along tc» 
the Norfh-East, distant only about thirty miles from the Har;S 
.an<! gives motion in that direction to a great m iss of water^s 
jjaeartj to th» Cc»ast ; wh.i..h mass meeting with the cur^re^i 



fro;T» the Cipe-F''?r, forms an eddy, \n vvhich the cJeposVts 
io nupg tht proivi- ntory 'H;d slioals of CiiOc-Fear hiiN c btcu 
rhacic. Tot St dep' sita have giacluaily extended the shoals and 
prolvngfd ihe piomfmtory ; and ihe conaMjiicnce has been, 
that the eddy curr. nt seitiiig down the coabt Irum this pronson- 
t'lv. h.:^ gradually increased in strength, and is now fast 
washiii ; an ay the sands from the South Western side o! ihe 
Pron-ontury, and depositing them ou Oak ibland to the Souih- 
Wtst of the Inlet. 

This ' arrcDt has, within the recviiection of the old Pilots at 
Sn lUviru , encroachtrd tr.ore than half a mile upon Bald Hc:.d, 
atid prolf >^ged iht head lap.dsol Oak Island a greater distance. 
'1 hose Pih fs are of opinici., that within a few years, th( pio- 
m i t( ry ol Bii'id Plead v, ili be extended to the Frying-Fiin 
Shoais. T"- curreivcs are continually changing the channels 
ovtr the J ; bat amidst all those changes, the depth of wa- 
ter coniin es nearly the sani : and unlehS the strength oi the 
current trorn the Cnpc-Ft ar should he considera ly Wiakii'-^j 
by the wideriig pvd deepeni\ig ol ihe New inltt, the same 
depth ot water ma\ conlinuer 

Iht crntral situarion of the Cape-Fear River, the improve- 
ir.t t of wh^c^ us Navigatt> n is 3usc( ptible, the possibility of 
bringing to it she trade « 1 two-thirds ol the Slate, the supui- 
crifv <;i n'- Inlets t(5 'any other on eur C'.ast, render any thing 
C(Hint ctt d with improvements on this River of peculiar impoi- 
tai ce — And it may here be pr-'ptT to notice certain facts inti- 
fr;ately connec >d wuh the Navigation and Commerce of tl is 
Ri\'r. The CpeFf ar receives, a lutle above the Towr. of 
\^ilmington, Bl tk River arvd the North-Fast; and a few 
irihs below this Town stretches out to the width of nea'ly a 
H»iU , and gradually -wid' ns until it rtathts the Bay at Sn>ith- 
vil? . 

Wi?mingt n s distant tliirty miles from Smithville j and 
the t'de ••' iih varies at Smithville from four to six frtt, va- 
ried at ^^ ih-ninpton fr m -eightten inches to two and an half 
ftf". Th firsi edd'. produced by the meeting of the current 
ot he i-Jnrr '.\*^,h th:;t of ihfc tides,, is tjcarlv twentv miles be- 
low V^' I n'Mpton ; and in this f'dy a deposif is made which 
f(!r-rs »vi:t IS -ailed "the Fl:*;-." Over these Flats, at high 
ti''' ri r^ s .1 ven f ft wj^tM,. Vessels drawinj.' more than 
el !*«?r!" " uer, i* cf>mf;; ilv\! to lighter at the Flats, and 

a'' \ r^fv:! to )uch /xp: nse -.'lul inconvenience on that ac- 

^ II. -, ■^'' \\ f V- ngf ,r> rontiiiue to be the principal port of 
the C ^ ar, f uill !< come a subject of interesting enqui- 
ry, whciner this obstruction tc the Navigation of that Rivet- 


&ir\ he p-^rmRnenMv removed? — If the deposit be made b^ the 
t|i :tiiug of ti'.e currents of the River and ;iv<j tult*, wiii u ue 
]) s*i!)le to prevtnt it? or will it be possible to varv the Ijce 
a.KlinHont'r of the di.-p^^sit, s^i tliwt a dee|) ch rw: k it 

O'vn) i Y\\ Flats extcTAl about three huiHir'-u ■■. and 

d )\vn the Rircr. The deposit is a ii^jht, soft ii>i ui, .i..»a ves- 
sels often ploi^gh through it to the dtpih oi two feet. 

'»Vhcn the colony first settled upon tht- Capi:-Fcas% th-i scite 
Si tected tor a shipping port, was al Bruiiswick, a suort diS- 
ta icc below the Flats. For sixts years after the scalcincat 
of the colony, Lumber anr^ N ., 1 Stores constituted ihc prin- 
cjnul articles of export iruiiithe Capt-Fear : The wiJ.a of the 
Ki rr bel-nv Wilaiiiigton, exposed it to the iniiucrtce of the 
^v 'ids, and rendered the descent o^" rafts o* Lurn;>cr a id N v,il 
Si.'. res dangerous : A'd this c .i River w;is coisi'... 1 

also dangrrf)U3 to the Boats which descetidrd the River, ir i^ 
the interior o/ the country — Fhcse circu-nstanc s inria eel , me 
government to patronise the growth of aiowahig.;et jp, wncre 
th. River was narrow j aud the olutT at Wd ningi >n se- 
lf cted. If this removal of the seat of trade was aa . - viblc at 
the time it was made, the change which has s nee tk.n place 
in the condition of the country, the increased.amount -f Agri- 
cnltiirai products for exportation, and the unhca .'.Uiuss f 
Wilningt )n, certainly render it at least pro U in.iiticdi wh. ihvr 
it s to b • considered benefi ial at this day. 

Wilmiiigtoa is situate on the Eastern side of the River, h ' « 
ang to the West extensive rice bwanps he xnalations tr la 
which destroy the health of its inhai)Uants. The evil might 
p ssioly be in a great degree remedied by draining the s\v<4 ..^'6 
ai. i changing their culture. 

W imiiigton has good water, perhaps the best in the Sou- 
thern Ports, The water in the Kjver is fresh, and vessels eaa 
lie at anchor wi.hout dang-.r from tht"- worm, whii h soon des- 
troys them at the mouth of the Rver, and secure from the 
danger of tempests. These are d'-jcided ad v ant iges, and ren- 
der Wilmington, in the opinion of many^ the most eligible 
port fi-r the Cape-Fear. A contrary opinion is entertained by 
others, vi^ho think that Smithvd-e is thf* m'>st < bgi'^l- p r,-, and 
the one which the government should patronis . Th. Bay at 
Smithville is fi e miles wide, protected on the North by the 
main land, on the North Eastbv Bald-head, and on the South- 
West by Oak Island. Smithville is situated on the Bay, open 
to the sea over the main Bar, and no ohj-cn )o is made to its 
healthiness. It is the place of resort for the people o*' VVd- 
,m>n,':;ton daring the .ssQkly ajonths of Summer and Autuma-*!.^ 


The channel for vessels lies ne:'>r to the main land, and wharvf^g. 
snav be ' xrended to the channel. All vtss- Is \^'hi( h t-nxcr 
through cht Ni w Inlet, or ovt-r the main Bar, 'an lie in this- 
channel The objections to Smithville are, l^t, the wid'h of 
the Kiv. r for nearly thirty mil< s a!^ove. 2:\, the worm vvhich 
«]estro\s vessels that lie lorj^ ai anchor. 'I'he introduction of 
Steam Boirs upon trie Cape-Ftar has rem-»ved the first objec- 
tion, >»s to all articles for exportati<^>f^ except lui? bcr and na- 
val stores. The second obje tion ma\ possiblv be done a va' ay 
Ly the :onstruGtion of Docks to be supplied wlih fresh water 
Irom Ehzwbeth Kivrr. Whether Wilmington or Sniithville- 
sl'f uld ')e patr<)ni,zcd by the government, as the principal pore 
for the Cape- Fear, is a question of great importance to the 
state, and iniimaiely connected with the plans of Improvement 
for transferring to the Cape-Fear the trade of the Pedee and 
Lumber Riversa 

OevncGche Inlef. 

Through Ocracoclce Inlet, shipments are made from the Ro- 
anoke, the Tar and the Neuse Rivers. It is inconveniently 
eituiite for the Ruanoke, and a voyage from the hcailof Aibe» 
anarlt sound to Ocracocke, is thought to be ». qual to a vo\ age 
from Ocracocke to New Y^ rk or to the VVc&t Indies. The 
I!Sr.»vigation off tlie toiiist at Ocracijcke is dangerous; the chan- 
riel acr'iss the is variable and difticult , within the Bar 
lies ;he Swa^h, over which there are only right feet of water, 
and within the swash there is no harbour, nor good'anchorage* 
groun ^ No p^rt of our coast seems to bg subject to gr. ater 
or more freqaent chang'-'^ than that near Ocracocke." The gr>?,t 
anass of wau rs in the Albt marie and Pamptico Sounds, sujy- 
jjlied by numerous rivers, pass out to sea, principally, thiough 
this Inlet: and some idea of the strength of the current which 
sets through this Inlet may be formed, from the fact that 
there are scarcely any perceptible tides in the Sounds. This 
currer t meeting the current of the tide, forms an eddy within 
the Bar, in which a deposit is m;>de which forms the swash. 
The InlKt has widened very much within the last fifty years^ 
5ind the depth of water across the Bar has lessened. It is 
6aid, that at present this depth does not exceed fourteen i^et. 
Vessels drawing more than eight feet water, have to lighter 
jh cross"- !-.o; the •vfisr, ; ami this circumstance, -idded to the 
.6therof there being no harbor, renders the Navigation throii"^^ 


M;his Inht not only inconvenient, but o^'ten extremely dange- 
rous. To lessen the inconvenit nee, it has been proposca to 
use CitDi Is for taking vessels across the swash ; and to lessen 
the diuigtrs ^t Navigation, it has been proposed to sink P is, 
ni <jriiig A..chors and Chains. The prculiar gurgitatincr qta- 
liiy of the sands tt tliis Ll. i, r^^ndcrs it v;;-) doubtful whether 
any eiectionof piers would prove permanetii. V<sstls which 
hav^ been w^^eck d here, have been quickly swallowed vip in 
the sands, ai>d .'ihcr vessels now sail over thvm. If the Inlet 
continue to widen, the ciei)th nf water over the Bar will^con- 
tinue to decrease, and this will be followed bv an increase of 
dtposis at the swash. This swash is lik{ the Flats of the 
Cape-Fear, of nearly the same width, and iormed of the s 'me 
sort of light mud, which changes its position at almost every 
storm — I he Commerce of the Tar, the Neusc , and the Roa~ 
ni.k (except s(> much of the latter as goes to Norfolk,) is de- 
pendent upon the Inlet at Ocracocke ,* and ahhc'Ugh so lar as 
thesubj.ctis now understood, there seems to be but li'tle 
ground to hope that this Inlet can be so improved that a safe 
and commodious Navigation can be had through it, yet ii a 
hetter Outlet cannot be found for the rich cooimerce of these 
Rivers, su h improvi ment should be made a Ocrac-cke as the 
situation of the Inlet iwill admit, and the revenues of the State 
be able to meet, 

Thv difficulties and dangers attending the Inlet at Ocracocke, 
have directed the public att> ntion 1st. To the openmg of an 
Inlet :)i the low -r end of Albemarle Sound. 2dlv, To tht o» 
pening of a communication by Navigable Canals irom tne Ro- 
anoke to the Inlet at Beaufort, or at Sivansbornugh : ?nd .n- 
^enttating at one port the Commerce of the Roanoke, the Taf 
■and the Neuse« 

The opening of an Inlet at the lower end of Alhe^- 
marie Sound, 

Whether a suitable Inlet for commercial purposes can be- 
tornied at the lower end of Albemarle Sound, is an enquirj' 
which has been deemed of so much importance to the State, 
that the. General Assembly have appointed a Board of Com- 
missioners to condu. t it, wi;h powers to employ competent En- 
gineers to determine it. This t nqiury derives its imp^.rtance' 
frum the River Roanoke, which is sec'^nd onlv to tht Hifr^sbn 
ru .Tjoiat of extent and the Icrtilicv of its lands, in the Atlan^ 

tk States. Without such an ij.i -t, .rppreh .sicms are cntcr-^ 
tained that the Commerce ot this liivt j wiil, tlir -ug . in DU 
mi*\ Swamp Canal, pa'^s to Norfoik. Ttic Liiiiacn s, ^ •wH 
ss tbc interest ol this State, is deeply toa ;crncd in scu.uig 
this Cwmnjerc" J and it v.'ill bt; one vf the iinj)ortant »:nqa • 
rjts submiued to the Principal Enij^incer, how tins caa tj<. ^f- 

Two plans have been proposrd ; one to open nit in!f* at the 
lower tnd oi Albennarle Sound : the Ofcher to dsvcrt the rr.i Js 
of the Roanoke to some Inlet now txisliiig upon oi^r coa>^i — 
Two questions have of late b^jfu agitated in ti is Si.ii : One, 
whether Soy of lh«: vessels oi Sir Walter HiU:»i>^.h cross*, d crte 
-Bar: I'he other. thr(.ugh what Inlet his tm-i> eni«.rrd when 
they canrsf lo Roiir.oke island., !t is alKgcd by 3 me,iiiaLhi3 
■^rRse!;? ailchoted oil the Coast, and hia boats oiih it.-'sscd the 
1j r t it is alleged by othtrs, that the vcss- !s crossed the Bar 
avtd anchort d under Roanoke Island, No satisiactury ni r- 
iTvatifK! has been procured upon these-pi ints, nor is ; pr* aole 
that :!iy such inlorma'ion an now be hati, ^yuhui.K ..c ->5. la 
thr Maps and Papers of Dr. Harriott, the Astroni.f^v j , wno 
accompanied Sir U'aker Ralejgh, and made charts o; ibat. p.irt 
of our Goasl, and wrote ar» account ot" the -xpr-iiii "ti. I' is 
isr.cierstood that these Charts and Piip'r§. t Doct. :^ rii/Ct 
^.'cre bequeathed by him to the Univers3?A -,1 Ox. ; . ii 
Pet« r Browne, Enquire, a Membi r oi this Bowil, O'jW i.. K>:g« 
lard, has been r-. quested t(. procure copies. Wnat ver*douuts 
irav rest upon these points, it seems cieai, that at th ti.«v of 
Si? Waiter R.tleigh's expedition, there w re tivo Inlets on t is 
par? of our coast, which ha'-e sine-:- disappear, d- The one 
t»» <» RfKinokr Inlet, near to Roanoke Island j, the oti'tr v. ;«■ 
liatteras, onciently called Ilatteraskc InUt, si '.Kite betwteu v_>- 
cracocke and the proniontorv of Hatteras. I' .s prubabL tnat 
the flosinj; of the Inlets is to be ascribed, pHn^ipaliv, to the 
widening and deepening of the channels thnjuglithe nrjarshi s 
^vest of RoHMoke Island — Some of those ' hanntb t sisled at 
ihr time of Sir Walter Raki^jh, otherwise he wouid not have 
giv..n the naifte oi Island xa what has ever siiicr be*, n called 
*•" Hoanckc Island." It was ascertainecJ t-y Mr. P' u-e, duri.'g 
the last Suinmer, that the bed of the Roauok a '^ illiamston, 
'Vi-^.z six feet above the bed of Pampiico at W.«;^hinc;ton : and 
?he strong currents setting through the marsh, s, shew that the 
Albemarl'- is more elevated than the Pamptico Sound. T. ■ the 
Etifnfcr'if Roauuke Island, lies Croathan Sound, comoiuni< r ng 
with the Albemarle to the North ai>d Pa nptico to the S iuha 
'Jhr(jugh tiiis Soand, and through Koanokc Inlet, die Wdttr^- 

i>f the .Uhemarle dischargt-d themselves previous to op'riT'irijr 
ol t .. ' •) iiiacis ihru^iijh th^- Oiar^'!. s—jnu when we attend to 
thi' UiLi, tnat thv Piimptico \'~- iovver 'oy stVLral icti than the 
AiiK 'Viatic, ir is T; liutred l>; jbablv-, tiuu most ot" the waters of 
t Ai.jcinarlv pa'ised i6< v-i Crr-^.thun Sfjiiiici, and that the .cur- 
Ti-ii ' irough ihc iulvi liiutt necesoarjly have bfcn wea'k, und 

< <■■- ihuc thtnc w;'.'s but little depth ot water. It is pro- 
b 's vicpi.h tiid not escned eight ft-et. As the ciiauuel 

1 ^, litrnarshes ope tiv}, tht currents (hruug^i the inlet aiid 
C .id. a S juud bc-camt- weaker, until fihally the I«lct Cosed. 

i\ic (ipenint; of ihe channels tiirough the marshes has jiso 
^Tcn tile Cciuse, probably, of cloiing the inlet at Ha.tcras. 
W.iiht the waters of the Albe.Tjarie were divided between 
Ko .■ k iiilet and Croathan Sound, the current setting into 
Pimpuco was weaker than it has been since Hoan.ikt h let 
wa- Liscd. Tiiis current, meei;ng the current trnm the 
N "Sv and Pa nptico, the combintd curreiits were defl cted 
1 ough K 1 ti ras Iniet, Vv'h. n the. strength of the currci^t 
fro si*in-.; Ai emarle -Was ii rcased b\ iit closing of Roac- 
oke inlet, it threw the point ■<( deflection further to ihe S j li ; 
ehe consequence of which w t, fiat the combined d. fi cted 
current no longer passefi out at Hatteras inlet, but m:'de itc 
V uy through the Banks furiher to the South ; and m this wajr 
Ocricocke was opened and Hatteras Iidet clos d. 

It the closing of Roanoke Inh i has been caust d by the open- 
Ing (^f the channt^ls through the nriarsh<-s, it is pr' .al)!!- thaC 
closing those channels would opt n the Inlet, and that there 
wou! ' be a greaier d ptk of w.,ti;r in tiie Inlet than at the 
^ime ot Sir Walter RaUigh : ior it is certain that some ot" 
tho';- -channels W' r- open m his tittie.j The closivig of Croa- 
tha I Sound would i^rth r improve the Inlet, liy directing the 
^hok current iVonn t've 'MbersKirle directly out ; , sea. 'I'his 
Would probably be the strongtrt current from the interior to 
he found < '^: our Coast ; and if the IiJet could be prev >i ed 
from wid ".ng, it would have a depth of water equal to ihai 
at Cape Fear.>/ 

Capt. Clarke, late of the Corps of Engineers, txan.ined 
■these Sounds, undt?r the direction of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by the General Assembly. His Map, shewing the 
<)irection of the sever • irrents, is filed in the office of Secre- 
tary of State. 

The objections wh ch have been urged to the forming ef 
t^his Inlet, are, 

1st. Tiie magnitude and exnense of the work; compared with 
tli<i rcEuurces of the State." 


2d. Tlie diiTruitv of procuring materials for a peKnutipivi; 
barrier across the marsht?'* 

otl. i'he jiur^iUitin<;; quiility ot the sands on t!ie Coast. It in 
said, h'lvvever, tiiat a clay foundatitvii can be had across the 
marshes. It is not proiiahie ti-at such a foundation can be 
had across Croatlian ^omd — W ilhoiit it, iUiy barrier which 
niig'it be erected, would soon be swallowed up in the sands. 

4th. The general direction of the winds along this part of the 

jjSth. That such a. barrier, if erected, wouM not have the car'.- 
tain effect of openini; the Inlet: that the waters of the 
Sound mi2;ht be dischar^'ed through Cur.ituck Iniet, or new 
channels be opene<l into Pauiptico. This objection i-) cer=. 
tainly weak ; for the great press of water in <iur Sounds is 
to the South- West ; the Albemarle Shoals towards ('ui:i- 
tuck Inlet ; and nothing but prevai'inu; Sonth-West wuids 
could press a strong current in that direction. — As to the 
sup(tositiun that new channels niii^ht be formed to the West 
of tlie present channels, the width of the land to be broken 
througl), its quality and texture, render such a suppositioa 
iiT utidiess. 

loth. It is said that a current sets down the coast from the 
Southern Cajie of the Chesapeake, and that it is foruring a 
shoal bv its deposits near Roanoke Inlet. That such a cur- 
rent sets down the coast, is true ; it is one ot those eddy 
currents which are found upon every coast having salient 
promontories in the neigiiborhood of the Gulph Stream. 
But it is not probable that it is forming a shoal near Roanoke. 
Inlet ; for this current continues down the Coa>t to the pro-, 
inontory at Hatteras, and there making its deposits, passeSi 
<itt around that promontory. No reason can be assigned why 
this current of itseff, should !orm a shoal near Roanoke In- 
\ let. The shcal which has been spoken td, no doubt, wai 
formed in distant years, by the meeting of the current set-^ 
ting down the Coast, with tlie current throug.'i the Inlet, and 
lies probably to the South of the Iniet. 
The Engineer will be able to ascertain many other facts re> 
iative to the currents upon the Coast, and correct errors in 
the statements which have been here made. It is a subject qf 
much interest, and one that requires grt?.t attention. 

Vld Topsail Inlet at Beavfort, and Bogue Inlet at, 

-Forming an Inlet at ihc lower end of Albemarle Soundy. 
*'0ulcl subserve the purposes of the Roanoke tr.-ide .ouiy.-** 


The forming of this Inlet would close the passages to it from 
inc Tar and Ncuse Rivers^ and the commerce of these Rivers 
must still depend upon Ocracocke, or find a new channel 
through the Inlet at Beaufort or Swansborough — It it impor- 
tant, in many points of view, to have the -Inlet at Beaufort 
carefully examined: It is believed to the best Inlet upon ouf 
Cfjiist North of the Cape- Fear. It is situate close under the 
lee shore of Cape Look-oat, and protected from the influence 
of the Gulph Stream by the promontory and shoals of Cape- 
Fear. It has been found subject to fewer changes than any 
of our Inlets. It has a depth of fourteen feet water over the 
Bar; and within the Bar, there is an extensive and safe har- 
bor. The town of Beaufort is healthy, and, like Smithville, is 
the resor*: of people from the towns in the interior during tflfe 
sickly months of the j'ear. Two plans have been proposed of 
concentrating at Beaufort, the trade of .the Roanoke, I'ar and 
iSfcuse Rivers — 

1st. By Navigable Canals commencing on the Roanoke at op 
near the town of Williainston, and extending to tlie Pamp- 
tico at Washington ; thence across to the Neuse by the way 
of Blount'd Creek and Swift Creek ; tlience to the Bay at 
Beaufort by the way of Clubfoot and Harlowe's Creeks'. 
£dly. To make a Canal between Clubfoot & Harlowe's Creeka 
Navigable for Steam Boats ; and with these Buats to collect 
the produce of the Rivers running into the Albemarle and 
Painptico Sounds, and concentrate it at Beaufort fur ship- 
ment. Steam Boats can navigate those Sounds with safe- 
ty : and can, in the present condition of the Rivers, navi- 
gate the Roanoke to Halifax; the Tar to Tarborousih, the 
Neuse to Smithfield, the Chowan and Meherriii to Murfrees- 
borough, and the Pasquotank to Elizabeth. The produce 
collected at these several towns, and also at Plymouth, E* 
denton, Washington and Newbern, could, by Steam Boats, 
be safely and quickly taken to Beaufort for shipment; and 
merchandise be distributed from that place to tliose several 
towns. It is probable too, that by giving to the Canal be^ 
tvveen Clubfoot and Harlowe's Creeks a suitable width and 
depth, a considerable portion of this trade might be carried 
ou it in light schooners. This Canal will be only two miles ia 
length, through a level, rich, alluvial soil : and considerable 
expense in the construction of it might well be incurred, if 
the benefits which are anticipated should result from it. 

To each of these plans, sundry objections are urged. 
1. The expense which must be incurred at Beaufort in the 
construction of Wharves : the channel for shipping lying aft 
a considerable distance from, the ."vhore, 

30 iNnEUKAT^ nri'RQM';MKNi;s 

2. T'he length and circuity of a vojage from the I'oanoke txt 

BcaulVirt^ " "'"■'■ 

S. 'i'hc <lungcr oF nnvigiiling- with Steam Bc;its the wide \va- 

tct's of tiie AUteinaile nnd Patii];tic() Sounds. 
4. 'ihc iinpossibility of can^iii;:^- freight iii iltwits tu be touo.-l 

1)7 bteatn Boats in those isouruls. 
.1. The iiinuence of habit and prejudice; and (he difliculty of 

diverting Comincrce from tiie chauneisin wliich it liasbcMi 

acciistoHicd to How. 
G. Till; jealousy and rivalry of (lie towns now ei)gaged in siiip- 

|)in_ij; lhr<'Ugli Ocracdcke. 

As to objtciions, it may be observed, that if the Inlet 
ftt Bi nutort Ijas fourieeii feet water over the Bar, this town en- 
4< VK, ir. ihis n spect, an advantage nearly equal tci New-Or- 
leans ; that It is subject to fe\v, if any, of the objections wliich 
i^pply to Ocracocke, being easy of access from sea, having a 
fiiit harbor, and no swAsh to obstruct the entrance of vcss(.ls ; 
bting accessible at little expence to all the trade f)f the Aibe- 
iTiarle and P;smptico Sounds, and also healthy. If it be a pri-! 
mary object with North-Carolina to ship her own prcduciiqns 
and supplv her citizens with markets at home for foreign m.v- 
chan<!i2e, tliis Inlet, or some other North of the Capc-F« ar 
possessing equal or superior advantages, should be selected, 
and the liberal patronage of the government should bt extend- 
ed t > it. Beaufort would become, to the se\eral rivers of the 
A btmarle and Pamptico'Sounds, what Norfolk is to James 
River ,* and would give life and animation to business in the se- 
\'«rral towns in the interior, which now receive a precarious sup- 
port from be Commerce carried on through Ocracockr.— 
Wharves w uld be conr.fructed as prospects opened to Conimer- 
cial enterprisf . Steam Boats would be found to shorten the dis- 
tance from the Roanoke ; and after navigating the Delaware and 
Chesaptake Bavs with safety, and transporting th^ productifins 
of the Ohi^ and Missouri to New-Orleans, ihty would be 
ff und to na\!',rite the Albemarle and Pamptico without dan- 
ger, aiid to transport the productions of the country over those 
Avatrrs without inconvenience. Prejudice and jealousy could 
make but in-, ffectual struggles, and Commerce would take the 
channel which the prospect of profit pointed out. 

K the plan of making navigabde Canals from the Koarioke 
t'l the Tar, and thence to the Neuse, be deemed roost advlsa-i 
h'U: Hr uniting the trad<^ of those Rivers, it may easily be pei*- 
c: iv d that this line of Inland Communication can be directed 
from the Ncuse, either to Beaufort or Swansborough. Little: 
is Vnown of the Inlet at Swansborough ; but it. is said to haven 
^raiually deepened far the- last thirty years, and to be little-^ 

OF NOllTri-CAIlOLlNA. 3|; 

inferior to the Inlet at Beaufott, either in safety of access from 
sea, depth of water over the Bar, or in the excellence ot its 
harbor*- From Ncwi)er!^, the clistiince is nearly the same to 
Swansborouj;h unci to B-aufort. A short Canal between the 
J.Trent and' White Oalc Rivers, wuuld open a commanicati>n 
bv water from ihe Neuse to the Harbor at Swatisboroagh. — 
Whether this, or the port at Beaufort, shall be selected for 
shipj>i!)g the productions of the princ'p;il Kivers cast (jf the 
Cape-Fear; or whether Ocracocke should be continued aiid 
improved for this purpose, are qjestions submitted to the coix*- 
'jideration of the Principal Engineer. 

Souuils on the Coast 

The Legisbtare have directed a Survey to be made of the 
Sounds which stretch along our Coast, from the Nortli Eas- 
tern to theSouth-Western extremity of the State. Fhe object 
of this Survey is to ascertain how far it is practicable to opea 
along these Sounds, an Inland Communication, whicii may be 
of eminent service in time of War; and of CMivenience ia 
time of Peace, The Dismal Swamp Canal now forms a com- 
munication between the Chesapeake and Albemarle, and 'he 
opening of the Sounds on our Coast would extend this com-, 
iTiunication to Little Ri^'er, on the line of South Car«hna^- 
There is a succession of these Sounds, Irom the norihera part 
of Currituck to the neighborhood of the Cap.- Fear; but be-, 
t'vten P»ogue Inlet and Cape-Fear, the channel is both cr >ok- 
©d and shoal, and this probably is the case in many [jiacea 
hetvveen Bogue Inlet and Ocracocke. A cut of a few miles 
is recj'jired to unite these Sounds with the Cape-Fear — South, 
ef the Cape Fear, a cut of less than two miles will unite Eli- 
zabeth River, which runs into the Bav at Smithville, with, 
Lockwood's Folly Bay, and from that Bay to Little River, 
there is a continued Sound. The advantages ol such an In- 
land communication by water, in time of War, are obvious:. 
in time of Peace, the advantages would be great, if the Sounds, 
fidmit of Steam Boat navigation. For they would form a safe 
and easy channel of intercourse between our sea port towns 
and those of Virginia and Maryland. At present, we know 
but litis of our smaller Sounds* 

It is understood, however, that their navigation is difBcuIt 
even for small boats. On these small Sounds, considerable 
^lablishmeritB h^ve l^en nia^e for the manufacture of ^'^% 


and it will '^e politic, at least so far to improve thcna\ ignttur 
of these Sounds and to connect ih< m with the S:n s on the 
Coast, that the salt could be boated to the Commercial townsc 

The Vrimary Rivers, 

The first Improvements which claimed the attention of the 
Legislature, were f-hose which were required for rtndeiing na- 
vigable our primary Rivers. Ol these, the Roanoke, the Tar, 
the Neuse, the C'<.pe F-ar, the Yadkin, the dtawba, atul tlic 
Broad Rivers, are those which will first claim the attention oJ 
th< Pri :Lipal Engineer. 

Id eximining the Geological structure of North-Carolina, 
It Will be seen, that a ridge of Granite extends through the 
State from Nurth East to South-West, nearly parallel with the 
Coast and forming in the slopr of its Southern margin, the 
line which separates the primitive and secondary formations 
from the alluvial. This ridge is connected with several smal- 
ler ridges, which although not uniff^rmly parallel, yet have the 
same general direction v/ith the main ridge. I'hese ridges 
vary m height, and in the rock of which 'hey are composed j. 
sometimts exhibiting immense masses of Granite, tbenof Cal- 
carious Rock, then of Slate, &c. 

In these ridges, near the Yadkin River, are found the GolcJ 
Mines of North Carolina, and other valuable Minerals arc 
Buppos d to abound in them. In distant ages, these ridges 
formed a barrier to the waters of th' Yadkin and Catawba, and 
spread ihem over great part of the counties > f Rowan, Iredell, 
Mrcklenburg and Cabarrus. In the course of time, these wa- 
ters have found their way to the ocean, along the channels of 
the Yadkin and Catawba, having gradually worn these chan- 
cels through the ridges of Granite, from their summit nearly 
to their base. This ridge of Gran te can be traced to the 
North-East as far as Nevi'-York. where it stretches out to sea* 
It is one of those peculiarities which distinguish the Geologi- 
cal structure ol this Continent from that of Europe. This, with 
other ridges of primitive formations, run nearly parallel with 
<;he ocean and with the main ridge of the Continent, the Great 
Alleghany. The valleys of our great Rivers, are at right an» 
gl. s to these ridges. In Europe, and particularly in the Py. 
rennees, the Alps, and the Appenines, these inferior ridges 
are lateral to the main ridge ; and the valleys of the great 
Kivers are parallel with, and between these inferior ridges.— 
Those Kivers h^vQ no Falls, like the Rivers here, v/hlch cross 


the ridges of primiiive formations Mr. Benjamin H. La« 
trobc, who has directed his at:cntion itiuch to this subject, as 
well as to othi r branches of science, is of opinion that the 
hi.-ight of this ridge of Granite, which txteiids irom New York 
through this State to Georgia, is nearly unifonn, until it reach- 
es the Roanoke. He feund that in the Rivers which cross it, 
there was a desctnt varying from 125 to 128 feet, from the 
Tv'atcr above the ridgf to tide- water below it. This probably 
h neisrly tht dcscrni in the Roanoke between those two pointSo 
But to the Souch-East of the Roanoke, the ndge is «f unequal 
h< ight ani! Widrri. It may be traced on the Roanoke, at the 
F lis above Kaiiiax ; on the Tar River, at the Falls below 
L' wisburg; on tlu Neuse, at Lokhart's Falls ; on the Capc- 
F^ir, at Bucku rn and also at Smiiie's Falls; (m the Yadkin, 
a> 10-^ Narrows; on the Catawba, at Rocky Mount, in South- 
C-srolina, hi. Tlds ridg , which has a width of ab'ut seven 
niurs on the Roanoke, seems to i)e narrower on the Tar and 
N us. ; ii widens as it approaches the Cape-Fear, and, divid- 
ing into umerous ridges, has a width of nearly thirty miles 
on the Yadkin, extending from Swamp to the distance of 
several miles below the mouth of Uharee river — This ridge 
ives to the Yadkin a fall of nearly three hundred and fiitv 
"cct, and to the Roanoke and the Cape-Fear a fall of about 
eighty feet, and is scarcely noticed in the Neuse. 

Above this ridge, each of the rivers has several small falls, 
which, with shoals and ledg' s ol rock, constitute the obstruc- 
tions to their navigation. Below this ridge, each of the Ri- 
vers enter the alluvial lands, and their navigation is there ob- 
structed by logs and sand bars. 

The Principal Engineer will Survey these Rivers, and de- 
termine upon the best methods of improving the navigation of 
each ; whether the beds of the Rivers shall be improved by 
sUiicrs, or by dams and locks, or bv both; or whether Can^de 
shall be made; and if so, at what places Also how far up 
each of those rivers, and their main branches and tributary 
streams, the navigation for light boats may be extended. 

H- will also determine of what materials it is adviseable,ij\ 
the present condition of the State, to construct locks, whether 
of stone, of brick, or of timber. 

The Tar, the Neuse, and the Cape-Fear, are not, properly 
spe.iking, primary Rivers ; but they have been classed with 
the Roanokt, Yadkin, Catawba and Broad Rivers, because 
they rise above and cross the ridges of Granite ; and to distin- 
guish them from those Rivers which rise out of, or below this 
?idge, and water only th?' alluviul country. 


The Legishituve ha=; granted charters to Companies for im* 
proving the nuvii^atioji ot each ol the pnmarv K;Vrrs, aiul his 
stibsi^nbed a portion ot the capital stock in ail the C unjKinrts^ 
rxce-pt that for the Broad Rivtr. Thcst; Kivers gi-ncraiiy ia-> 
ttrsect the State from North to South, and afford grci^t^r la- 
ciliti;s of Inland Navigation than are foiind in any ot he Ai» 
lantir States. The Roanoke is the most importitnt Riv . r in 
the State, not only on account of the fertility, bin also ol the 
extent of the lands which it waters, ana the channr I it 
':vfrords of bringing to our markets the agricultural products of 
several counties of Virginia. The Dan Riv*r, one of its prin- 
cipal branches, runs to the Virginia line irom iis ource 
to its junction with the Stauntoi> ; and is n vigablc ior light 
f»oats to the neighborhood oi the Saura Town p4ounlviins — 
The Staunton, the other principal branch of the Koanokr., lica 
altogether in the State of Virginia, and can be made navigable 
fbr light boats to the foot of the Blue Ridge. The Roanoke, 
and its tributary streams, Vvater fifteen millions of acrts ; of 
wfiich, nine millions are suitable to the culturti of Tobacco, 
Wheat, Indian Corn, &c. and the residue al)ounds with mate- 
Ti.';ls for lumber and naval stores. The products of this river 
iannually for exportation, may be estimated at two and an half 
iviiUions of dollars — If proper encouragement were given to 
iridustry, by rendering the River Davigablc, these products 
Vcuid soon exceed five millions. 

Thft company which has !:een incorporated (or improving 
frV.e navigation of the Ronnoke, as received its charter from 
the Legislatures of North-Carol na and Virginia ; and each 
State feeling n de"p interest: in the success of this Companv, 
has resolved to aid its efforts. The capital stork of the Ct.<m- 
p.any is fixed at three hi'^ndred thousand dollars. (;f which smn,- 
Vlrginia, in the spirit of liberality which dlstinguishrs all her 
pu!)fic a^ts,. has. subscribed eighty thousand, and No'th Caro- 
Jina twenty-five thousand, reserving to liCrself the right of en- 
iargliig this subscription to eighty thou and. Virginia hopes 
to direct the trade of this fine River to Norfolk; and will- 
certainlv succeed, *• great exertions be not mtde by North- 
Carolina ^o secure it — ;'l he trade cf this River, Is a prize wor- 
thy of the high atvibition of two powerful States — The chance* 
rvre certainly in favor of North-Carolina ; it remains to be seen 
nvhether efforts will be made to itnprove them. 

The Tar River rises near to tiie Virginia line, and runr.inj^ 
r.early Soutl), discharges' itself into Famptico Sound. Near 
its mouth, it receives part of the waters cf the swamp 
in Efaufort Ccrjntv. v.? here it v.'idens sn^ takes. the name of 


Pfimptico River— It is navigable lor Steam Boats as high as 
I'.iri.o! aii;,l> and its navigation may be nnproved for light 
b.'.its lo 1. wisbarg, and probably tnirty miles furiher. 

<\ Survey of this KiVf.r \Vas made by Col. Bcnjanun F. Bald- 
win, 111 ihi'. year 1816, and his Report of this Survey is ia tht> 
h.iiids oi tht. principal Engineer; and will give a generalidca 
ol' the obsiructions which exist to the navigation of the Rivcr 
a^ high up as, Lewisburg, where the Survey lenninated. The 
dillicult'.es to be encountered upon this River are very incou- 
sid; lable, and it is strange that a spirit of enterprise has not 
ion^ since '-vei come them. ~' 

T'-iO n.iau- of vhe River indicates the character of its prin- 
c'p.d cX.H)ri>. The Tobacco aud Wheat which have beea 
raisijd on the upj5Sr brauLhes of this Kiver in Franklin, 
(i:,ii.ville, Warren and Halifax, have been waggoned lo the. 
iiiarl:ets in-Virginia ; and the exports of Washington, far- 
iiisli bjt a poor idea of the fertility of the Lands v/atered by 
this Kiver, or of the wealth of their inhabitants. 

Washington is a Port of Entry, and is more conveniently 
situi\te for carrying on A Commerce through Ocracocke, than 
any of the Towns on the Albemarle or Paaintico. It is sub- 
ject, however, to one inconvenience.— -A few miles below tha, a shoal stretches aCross the River, over which, as thti 
wind sldfts its point, the water varies from nine to eleveu 
feet In this are imbedded numerous logs, which have fh at- 
ed down the River, and within the Harbour, vessels are 
sometimes endangered by Cypress Stumps, TV'hich shew tlwt 
the Channel here is of recent formation. These stumps can 
be re moved, "and a channel opened tlnough the shoal ; — but, 
it is '5vt this time problematical, whether this channel can be 
ki pt open. I'his shoal is probably formed in the eddy maus 
b> the meeting of the current of the River with the great- 
mass of waters in the Pamntico Sound : Ard if tliis be the 
fact, the fleposit of the River will continue to be made at this 
point, and a channel across the shoal cannot be k. pt oper., 
without a continual removal of this deposit — For the purpose 
•of raising a permanent fund, to be laid out in clearing this 
shoal, the Legislature, by the assent of the Congress of the. 
United States, have imposed a small tonnage duty upon ves- 
sels exceeding a certain tonnage, and empowered the Collec* 
t -r of the Port to collect this duty, and appropriate it, undeP 
t'ie di-ertion of the Commissioners of Navigation for the 
Port. — "i'ne improvement of this shoal, and also of the liar-- 
!■) )ur at V/ashington^ \\'ill cln'.ra the o.ttcnii.n of rhe principal 


The Neuse River also has its si;urces near to the Virginia 
line, and runnirg South, discharges iisili inio Pamptico 
Sound below Newbcrn. Its three uiaui upper bt imcht-s, Kau, 
Little River and Flat River, uiutc in the South-Eastern part 
of Orange County, where the River takes rhe name of Neuse. 
From this place, along the meanders of the River to its 
mouth, IS a distance of three hundred miles. W hen it enters 
the aihivial country below Smithfield, it becomes moic 
crooked than any of our Rivers — with little labour it can br 
made navigable for Steam-Jioats as high as Smithfield, and 
probably higher. Its navigation for light Bi)ats, may he ex- 
tended to the junction ot its main branches, anrl probably up 
Eno, by Dams and Locks, to the Town of H ilsborough. — 
There is no River of the same extent in North-Carolina so 
easy of improvement as the Neuse. Below Smithfield, this 
River has been used for transporting Lumber and N ival 
Stores to Newbern : but the Cotton, Tobacco and Wheat, 
grown on this River and its branches, above Smithfield, have 
been waggoned to the markets of Virginia. The want of 
these staples at Nenbern, has prevented the loration of com- 
mercial capital at that place ; and as the Planters and Far- 
mers were dependant upon land carriage, they sought mar- 
kets where capital was to be iouod- This has been the la« 
mentable condition of our trade, not only on the Neuse, but 
on most of our other Rivers. 

Newbern is the Port of the Neuse, from which are shipped 
Lumber, Naval Stores, and large quantities of Indian Corn. 
The River Trent, which runs into the Neust at Newbern, 
has some of the best lands for Indian Corn in ihe State. 

A considerable quantity of Wheat is also grown upon the 
Trent, and shipped from Newbern. This Town, once the re- 
sidence of the Col')nial Governors, and long the seat of CioV- 
t-rnmcnt, both before and since the Revolution, has gone much 
10 decay. The late Navigation act passed by Congress, has 
contributed more than any other cause, to produce this decay. 
The plans of improvement for the Rivers of the Albenrarle 
and Pamptico Sounds, and the Inlets on our Coast, it is hop- 
ed, will revive its fortunes, by giving to it a new and an ex- 
tensive commerce. 

The Cape- Fear, like the Tar and Neuse, rises near to the 
Virginia line. Its main branches, the Haw and Deep Rivers, 
lise near to each other ; and after taking long and circuitous 
courses, unite at the Town of Haywood, where the River 
takes the name of Capt Fear. Its course is the'> generally 
South to the Bay at SmithviUe. This river is navigable ior 

OF IsOllTli-CAROLlNic- <^ 

Seam^Bcjats to l^ayetteville, and may be probably renJered 
ii;ivi:^,,b!c ior small Sieain- Boats to Haywood. The Haw and 
D'^ep Rivers luivc their Navigation obstructed by rocks, 
iihoais and falls ; but these diificuliifs may probably be over- 
come, and a navigation b^ opened up Haw River to the 
C:u!oty ol Rockingham, and -iip Deep River to the County of 
(•uiiford. Much labor aud great cxpence will certainly bci 
icquircd to n\ake these streams navi^ai) e, and such a work. 
mubt necessarily progress slowly. Nc\v-H:jpe Creek, which 
runs into Haw River two miles above Haywood, is easily 
improved. It is a crooked stream, with li tie tall, and suffi- 
cient water for light Boats, to Patt-rson's Mill, distant only 
nine mils trom Hillsborough. The superiority of its Inlets, 
and the excellence ot" its navigation to Fayetteville, have long 
made Cape-Fear the ])rincipal channel of Commerce in this. 
State. The exports from Wilmingcon have generally doubled, 
and often trebled, the exports from all our other ports. This 
"Rivet claims peculiar consideration, not so much on account 
of ihe fertility of its Lands, as of the facilities which exist of 
bringing- to it for shipment the productions of nearly one- 
half ol the Agricultural part of the State. This River de- 
rives iinportai:rce also frora its numerous tributary streams,, 
•most of which are navigable almost to their sources. The 
North East, the Black River, the Rock Fish, and the Little 
Rivers, are streams which water an extensive tract of alluvial 
country, abounding in inexhaustible supplies of naval stores 
and lumber. 

The Yadkin rises in the great ridge of INIountains divid- 
ing the I'astern and Western waters of the Atlantic ; runa 
East through the Counties of Wilkt-s and Surry ; thence 
'turning to the Sou-th, its general course continues the same 
until it enters South-Carohna — It traverses an uniformly fer- 
tile country from the foot of tiie Blue Ridge. It waters 
r>early six millions of acres, on which reside ohe-third of the 
Avhite population of the State — At its junction with the Uha- 
jee River, in Montgomery County, it takes the name of Pe- 
dee, which it bears to the Ocean. From the South-C&rolina 
Tmc to the mouth of Uharei:, a distance along the River of 
sixty miles, there are no v^rv serious obstacles to its naviga* 
iion. Bctv.^een Uliaree and Flat Swimp, a distance of twenty 
miles and upwards, cross the numerous ridges of Granite 
which form the Narrows and Fall;; of this River. From Flat 
owamp to Wilkesborouyh, near the foot of the Mountains, 
■•tlic navigation ir--i', i.a'-.>ily be made good fax Boats o£ V^ 


tons burthen. Durmp, the last summer, the Rev. Joseph 
C^U'.v.l., Pn side I it of our University, and Mr. Klish* 
IMitr;- :!, Pr^jtV&sOrrot" Maihematics in that institution, made 
a §urvcy of tKe Narrows and Foills, with a view oi" asecriaHj- 
ing the fall oi ti)e Hivcr, and whether it be practicable to 
construe, a Canal along tl\is part ol- it.' 'ihcir survey was 
chiffiv crinfmtd tu the Western side. During^ the presv^iit 
Tear, Mr. John Contf-has surveyed the grouuds oh the East- 
tin side of the Mivcr, with the samj; view. Their Reports, 
with their Maps and Proiiles, are in tht*. hands ol the Princi- 
pal Rf'giueer ; and it is suljmitttd to him, to determine what 
is the bc'-t Plan of Improvement to be adopted tor passnig 
the Narrows and Falls :' whether by Cauais, a Turnpike 
Koad. or a, RiviS-\V;v\'— Tac-^Cotton; T^obacco, Wheat, «n.l 
other articles auniiallv raised .for exp(>rtation on the Pedc 
and its Branches, in this State, an estiinattcl at tv/o millions 
of dollars. It this River were rendered navigable to Wilkes- 
borough, that Pov/n would draw a considerable trade from 
the neighboring- Cru^ntiesf of Vitginiti, and probaidy iVom 
some of the Counties of iuast-Wtnnessee. It is a much more 
convenient market than iuy of those Counties can find cise- 
\vhere. T'he coustruclion of a Turnpike Road from this 
town across the mQUnlams towards Abingdon, would insured 
profitable trade fr(^m that quarter — As this Kiver runs into 
SDUth-GariDlrna, ic becomes a question of deep interest to tht; 
commercial character of this State, hsvv its trade can be di- 
verted to the Cape- Fear— Th;is question will be considered 
when the junclioa of this River with the Cape-Fear 13 treat- 
ed of. ^ 

The Catawba rises near to tb^ Yadkin ; and afttr watering- 
a verv rich country, enters Sou h Carolina. This Rivtr hau 
no gr'at obstructions to its navigation in this State. It may 
be improved for light Boats some -distance above M> rganton. 
T'lie great obstructions in this Rivtr, are at R'cky M >unt, in 
South-Carolina. — The appropriation of a-mdlion of Dollars 
for Initrnal In^provements, madt by the Lr gislature ol Stmth- 
Cfirolina, at their last Session, insures the improveineut of 
the Catawba ; and the ■ armers on that River will soon have 
a water carriage for their pi ocluce -• Pne navigation of this 
River derives additional inipor^ance, from the consideration 
that it approaches so t^tar to East- lenncs^ee. The trade 
froirj that section ot ct imtry can casilv be brought to it. It. 
is understood, that a good Parnp ke Road can be made froirt 
the PU'Visa .t G.'.r'-I.'a?, above M >n!;atit()!), by the Yellow 
Mountain, on ta the Tennessee iiac, .a.d anot-.r by the 

OF X©;iT!!-':AItOUNA. 39 

Sswanranoati Gap, tlyonvh' Haucuiiibc. ' Sunh.^Toads would 
ensuri.* lo -the C.iLiiwou a iaigc poruoa oi ilic trade oi K;ibt- 

'i'iie strcums which form Broad River,, unite uii the Sv.»uUi o£ 
Riuhcrioird fJounty, and ihcncc piss -into South Carolina.— 
I'iiig Kiveri ijnd its tiiaiu branchesv may be rviidered naviga- 
ble ior light boats, to as to ailorci a water carriage to niore 
than one iiall' of! the extensive County of Kutheriords— -'I'his 
Jlivi r IS the nearest navigable stream to the people ot Hay- 
vviind. and to a great paitot the people oi Buncombe. The 
Engineer qi ..South-C.trolina is now engaged in i pruvmg th? 
navigation of the iiroad River in that State ; and m a little 
time, cue inarkets-ol ColunJ^ia and C^iarleston Wii: be render* 
ed ac' (;ssible to a rich and ;jection ut this Suite. 

The first object ol the Legis.aiure 'i;j tiie system of Inter- 
nal Improvements isto render our navigable, that the 
Farmers may have a water lor tneir produce— -and 
to this obj,.ct the avu^uiion ol tlie Frincspal Engineer will be 
iirst directed. 

The junction of two or more of the Vrhnary Mi". 
vers hy navigable Cajials. 

This Improvement has for its object's 

1. I'he ijpcnin^ of new channels (d Intercourse, 

2. The shortening oi" distances i^ market. 

3. Tlte concentration at a lew points ol" the produce of our 
AgncuU-ure, ol our Forests, and ot oui iiivers ; the growth 
at tiioi^e poiitts, ol commorcial towns 5 and tiie shipping 
from thojie towns thf varioas ai tides ol. exports. 

Heretofore the pioduciions of the* Nvrehcrn parts of the- 
State, lying on the Roanoke audits Drunthcs, and also on the 
upp' r parts of the i'ar and Ncuse, nave been sent to the 
markets of Vitgiuiaj; and the trade of Broad Rivi r, the Ca- 
tawba and Pedee, has gone to 8 >uth-Carolina. fhis it has 
happened, that we hav^ shipped from our own Ports not more 
th in One-third ot our, Agncultutal products ; and .veii a coni» 
siderable portion of our Stavt s, Lumber and Naval Stores, 
.have been sent to t-ther ports by the Dismal Swamp Canal, 
oi> one side ; or b) the Watkamaw, Liulc Pedee ^clAd Lum- 
ber River, on the other. This untoitunaLe division of our 

I'de produces many bad effects. 

I. i\ makes us appear a pyv-T state in the union* 

40 !:<rrEU\'AL improvements 

C It leaves us without markets at liomo : and tluis we to^9t 
the profits upon our Commerce. Tiie aiiiiual loss ('if Coin- 
mercial Prolit sustained bv Nortii-Caroliiia bv not iiavin^ 
markets or iier own, is estimated at more than half a aiii- 
lion of dollars. 

<}. Our trade being scattered and most ot'it sent to tiie neigh- 
boring states, we have no large Comnierrial City : and our 
\vhole population is devoid ol tliat animating pride, which 
a large Citv and an extensive concentrated Con\iiierce conr 
tribute to inspire -^ 

We have a population little shart of seven hundred thou- 
sand. ^\ e have as many square m.les ot Territory as the 
State of New-York. We have a soil equal to that of most <»f 
the Atlaiitic States ; and yct^ the total amount of exporia 
from our own Ports falls short of three millions of dollars. 
It is probable, the entire produce of the State, annually, fop 
exportation, exceeds seven millionth — The products of our la- 
bor go to swell the exports of Virginia and bouth- Carolina, 
sjnd give to those States a commercial consequence at our ex- 
pence — To remedy these evils, the Legiskiture contrinplate a 
system of Internal Improvements, v.hich have fi;r their ob- 
jject, the shipment from our own ports of uur own products. 

One part of tht system is to improve the navigation of oi;^r 
principal Rivers, and thus give to our Farmers a water carri- 
age for their produce. - Another part is to concentrate the 
trade of the State at a few points by navigaMe canals betw^^eu 
the principal Rivers. For this purp')se, it is proposed, 

1. To unite by navigable Canals the Uoanoke, far and iVeuse 
Rivers, and to concentrate at some one point their produc- 
tions for shipment, through Ocracocke, Beaufort or Swans- 
i 2. To unite by navigable Canals the Cape Fear, Pedee and 
Catawba, and to coticentrate the productions of those Ri- 
vers upon the Cdpe-Fear f<tr sh![)ment. 
The first part of this plan has already been treated upon jn 
parr. With a view of ascertaining its practicability, Surveys 
Hvere made during the last summer by Messrs. Jonathan 
Price and Woodson Cli-mous. Thev were instructed to make 
these Surveys as low tht^ Roanoke, Tar & Neuse Rivers, 
as was fbought expeditnt to attempt a junction ; and commen- 
cing at Williamston, on the Roanoke, tht y took the levels to 
Washington, on '^I'ar River ; and from the mouth of Blount's 
Creek, btlow Washington, to the top of the ridge dividing 
the waters of the Tar from those if the Neuse. Their instruc- 
tions relative to these Surveys, their Reports to the Commis- • 
f^iooers, and th" Maps and Profiles are in the bands of rU<^ 

'Principal Engineer. It \v\\\ be seen, from the^r Kv;pnrfcs, that 
their SurvcVb promise a«iavcr;ible result : that at a rcasonaltle 
txpt-nct , x\ navigable canal c.iw be made from the Roanoke, 
near . Williamston, to the Tar River at Washington ; and that 
a like canal can be made, iri:!m die boatable waters "ol' Blonni*6 
Creek to those of Swil't Creek, above Newbern. It is propo- 
sed to extend this line of communication to the Inlet at Beau- 
fort, by makir.g a navigable canal between the deep waters of 
Clubfoot and Hariowe's Creeks. The late Dr. M'Clare, 
some years ago, made a small canal connecting the waters of 
these Creeks. The Legislature has vsince incorporated a com- 
pany to widen ancfdeepen this Canal : and it is expected, that 
bv this route, a navigation for Boats drawing six feet water, 
uiav be opened from the Neuse to Beaufort, at a smalj ex- 
ptvicc — The objfctions to this route, as the one along which 
tht trade of the Roanoke, I'ar ard Neuse Rivers should pass, 

1. That, below Newborn, the Neuse suddenly widens, and at 
HarlDwe's Creek has a width of several miles ; that ?.(m(^ 
navigating the Neuse abuve, cannot navigate it in tiaf ty 
below Neu'bern. 

2. That in Clubfoot and liarlowe's Creeks, and through the 
Cr\iial which sliall connect t'nem, there will not be depth of 
water lor vessels entering at Beaufort to pass up to New-' 

These objections Vvill cease to have any weight, should it 
be f<;und practicable to construct the canal in such a way that 
it mu'. be navigated by St(. am-Boats. And as it may be de- 
sirable to run light Steam Boats alnng the whole line of Ca- 
nals from the Roanoke, the attention of the Principal Engi- 
nttr will be directed to this subject, and he will determine 
whether Steam Boats, upon any construction heretofore known, 
car, be used upon canals without great injury to their Bank?. 
Tht ;)rop' St d junction of the Roanoke, Tar and Neuse Ri- 
vera, is throi;gJi alluvial land, and the watera lor f eding the 
canals lie in tht grt at Swamps situate on the summit of tlu- 
j-idges dividing the v/aters oi these Rivers. 

The junction of the Capc-Fcar, Fedee and Ca^ 


The Geological structure of North-Carolina, seems to ren- 
der it very doubtful, whether any two of our primary Rlvx^rf; 

4S lNTKr;^^VL i?.iP.:'.;vrMK>;TS 

can be; ccnuected at .any rcasouaLlc expi-nce, to- the North o^ 
the Grutjitvf^Ridg'--, which has been, inentioncd. Upon ihis 
subject," the Cuniaassioners rtccivcd dunng'the last year aa 
intcitsling Comnittjiicaiicn f;onn li. H. Latrobt-, Esq. in wi;ich 
he observK^, " that all our gr*. at Rivers aiiiy be considered as 
" runiiing in deep vtviiics, scparaccd by ridges more or less 
*' elevated, 'ihtir colhiteral waters are again s>,parated bf 
*' lesser ridges ; so that the gincral suriacc of the high alluv;al 
" land, being considered as havnig been originally lev. J, the 
" WiU- r courses have worn down the vallics ayd Ittt tlu 
*' ridges standing all nearly o! the Icyel oi the original plains. 
*' Across these sciontlary ndgcSj^run from North-East to 
*' Sf uth-West, in nearly parallel lines, t^rz^i-nal or priinitivc 
" rocky iormatior.s, creating another range ol' ndges^ ahaost c.t 
** right angles with the first, and wriich rise aiioVc tlie level 
*' of the idlr.vial plains that fill the spacepetwecn, them. NnW 
*' in this lornnation, consist all th(t diiRcUltics vl'hifh oppose 
*' the union, by ar'tiiicial u;eaps, ol one of ^otir-great Rivers 
"with its neigi~.hor. Ff>r the first ni^ntiontd ndg-'s o-pp sc 
" the connection through the san)e \ alley from Norih-East 
*' 'o Sduth-Wist : and the second, c;iitr a reck) barrier to 
*•• their approach by a desccct Irom ihi- higher to the lower 
*' level. And herrin, our country differs entirely from Eu- 
*' rope, where th^-rivers generally run in vallies determined 
*' by the range ofpriaiiuve or secondary nK^unudns ; whde, 
** with us, the Hivers run across our mcuntu'n rang, s, wear- 
*' ing down detp heels in the vallhss between ; which thus, 
^' relatively to the Beds 6^ the Rivers, become high obsuuc- 
*' tions between thchn." jMr. Lairobe having aidv d di<. Cein- 
niissioners wrh his advice as to the manner in which Survex 5 
!North of the .Granite Ridge and across it, sh(>uid be conduct- 
ed! t'.vo Survey's were cornirsenced during tlie lait summer, 
between Deep Riv<r, the S aithern branch of the Car)<--f^ ar 
and ti-ie Yadkin. Tlie main (Object of these Su.'-vi ys wa^, to 
ascerialn llie nlative levels^ ot the beds of. the Yacikin. The 
Uharte and Deep Rivers, on the same parallel of latitude, and 
the height of the intir\ening ridgt:&. Mr. William Terry 
took the levels from the Flat Swamp un the Yaiikinj to Las- 
siter's Ford on Uharee ; and Messis. Price anri demons, 
commencing' on"D en Riyer, ai Mrndenhah's Mibs, iiiiade a 
Survey to Lassiter's Ford, on the Uharee, and U) the .mouth 
of Fork Creek, on Deep Xiiver ; and determined the relative 
levels of the v.vater at thrse several places, and also ot the se- 
veral dividing ridges* The R-.poris, Maps and Pr.. files of 
these Sur\'eys. are in tr.e h;.nds of . the Priiieipul Engineer^ 


Iliese Surveys r'r w, m a very clear manner, the great difli-- 
v\iliit. which arc tu be found in the Geol.f^ical structure of 
ii,e State t%» tht t<>r!riiiig of a<n lini'.'n between two of our R.I- 
v.;s to the Nortn ot the Kklg 3 oi' C^r..v.)ite. Yet so desirable, 
in a few uistanc's, is such an union, that further Surveys v/ill 
be madi lodettruvine its practicability. 

K:-i\ in the [))tHLnt year, IMr. John. Couty was employed 
t.-> n- k.. Surveys bi t ween the J-^edee and Cape-Fear, South of 
tie i i'ges of Gfanitf, and I^etweers the Pedee and Catawba, 
IX'v.rth ot th'ose Rid^ts. — Between Pe^ee and Cape-Fear, is 
l-tin^bt'i" ^<ivtr, called on the Map Drowning Creek. 

'I'his 1^1 ver ri->cs in the great iJ-idge of Granite,- and runs on 
a Plain eieviated more than an hundred and fihy feet above 
tht- iirdsot the Peclee and Cape-Fear. The ridges which di- 
vide it<^ w.iters from those uK Pedee, on one side, and Cape- 
l'*car-f)i) the other, run neliily parallel \vidi the lliver, and af- 
ter a long slope, gradually dibappcar. Mr. Gouty was instruct- 
ed t'o ascuilain, in the 5i*st place, the rtl.'.tive levels of the beds 
of these three Rivers, as ihe basis of his lurther operations, 
auwl then to' ascertain 

1. Whether a conununicafioti by v/atcr coiial be opened fronn 
(he Lumber River to Pciep. 

2. Wi-.other such a omrnunica^i'T. couiil be opened from tho 
Lumber River to the Capft-Fear. 

Petween Lumber River and Pedee, he was instructed to 
Tr,; ke three Surveys — 

1. By tha wav of Mountnin Creek, which runs into the Peden 
at Coleman's Mill-pond, near t'le head of the Qrassv fsiands, 

3. By tiie way of Ffitchcnck Creek, >\*kich runs into the I'etleo 
several miles below the Grassy hlands. 

G. By the way of Marks's Creek, nhicli runs into the Pedeo 
a few hundred yards below the Suutliern Boundary of the 

Between Lumber River and Cape-Fear, he was instructed to 
irake sundry Surveys — 

1. By the way of ilockfi>.h and thence to Fayettevillo. 

2. From Rhodes's Miil-pond on Saddle Tree, near Luiuberton, 
to Sullivan's Mdl pond on the Great Swamp, atid (hence to 
the Cape-Fear. 

3. Fi om fiUinber Iliver, below I^umberton, to the Western 
Prong ot the V* hite IMarMli, by tlie way <d Peters's Swamp, 
and across the Great Swamp ;,dowii the WhiteMarsii to the 

VVackstnaw River; t; i-ice a'cf ;; the Soul ItcrM t;in of the 
Gieen Swamp, to Laik wood's Kolly 'liver, d;;u 11 (hi! River 
tu the Bjv, i^litncc across ta lihzabel'i iiiver at Smiiuyiliei 

44 j:\TE4tNAi.. i.'\]l'iH.<\ KMiiATS 

It v'lU he ^een by looking to the Map ?)[" iIk- Suuc, tii^.l (h'-S-i 
r^fViial rouiLs bciug survtycd, it Vv^ill be easy lo ckici (ni.ic 
which ol thtm sliall be sclecttcl. It is not, pcih^ips, u niutc<,if 
of imich consequence wbethcr uiore than one chamiel ot com- 
rnunicaiion be cpcned between Lumber River ;tiid Pcdec ^ 
une should be chosen which shall be lound least expensive, 
and most easily ^nade. But the public interest seems to re- 
quire, that two or more commuijicatio'ns by water should bc- 
opened between Lumbei* River and the Cape-Fear, The most 
jnr.poriant is the one which shall direct ta FayettcviUe the trad^; 
of the Pedee. But lower dowii, through ll/bcson, where a 
Canal can probably be made, connecting the Rivers, at a small 
«xpence, the riches of the soil cannot be brougnt into activity" 
^vithout such an improvement. And* indeed, the great quan- 
tity of fine timber for staves and lumber, and the immense 
i'crests of pine for tar and turpt^ntlne, which cV'.ry where spread 
over the cuntry watered by Lumber River, require that some 
channel should be opened, along which these articles can be 
taken to the Cape-Fear for shipment. And the rich lands ot 
the White Marsh and Green Sv.'amp, as well as their inex- 
liaustible supfdies of materials for Lumhrr and Naval Stores, 
also require that a communication shouM be opened from 
thence to the CapeiFear. 

Mr. Coutv liaving ascertained that the bed of the Lumber 
JRivcr was sufficiently e^levated to feed a Canal on one side to 
the Pedee, and on the other to Cape'Fear, surveyed the ridge 
which divides the v/aters of Lumber River Irom those of Pe- 
dee, and found its lowest point of depression to be at the Pop- 
Jar Springs ; and then ascertained that a Canal taken across at 
this point, could be directed either into JMountain Creek or 
•Hitchcock Creek, Mr. Ccut3' found liwie difficulty in tracing 
<3ut the route for a communication between the Lumber River 
near the Poplar Springs, and the Cape Fear at Fayetteville.— -■ 
The Lumber River and Roclcfish creek, will form the channel 
of communication between the P-^dee and Favetteville, f;:ir 
more than half of the distance. IMr. Coutj's Pvlaps and Pro*- 
-files of the several Surveys committed to his charge, and also 
Iiis Reports, will be placed in the hands of the Principal En- 

None of the Internal Improvements contemplated by the 
Legislature, is of more imporiance to the interest and charac- 
ter of th*- State, than the junction of Pedee with the Cape-Fciar* 
The mar', ts on the Cape- Fear are more convenient lo the 
nvhple Cuntry watered by the Pedee audits l)ranches, than the 
markets of K^uth-CiTolina : and the distance from Snecdsbo-,- 


rough, on Pedee, on the South Carolina line, to Wilmington, 
even by thu \v;iv f'f Fayetfcville, along the proposed route to 
that town, is sh )rtcr than the distance from Sneedshorough to 
Georgeiown, al 'Hg ths Pcdi^e : and as the depth of water over 
the Bar at Georgetown, forbids ihe expectation that a large 
comiTiercial town can ever grow up at that place, the planters 
and fanners on the Pedee and its branches, will have thcij: 
•interest much advanced by opcnin'g to thein the markets oa 
the Cape Fear. 

A conipetition will grow up between these markets and those 
of Soutii-Carolina, — and produce will be sent where the best 
price shall be given for it. The character of the State is also 
deeply concrncd in bringing to the Cape-Fear the Commerce 
of the Pedee: a Commerce nearly equal to one -third of the 
entire Commerce of the State, and supported by the richest 
staples which our soil produces. 

The Lrgislature, in the year 1816, incorporated a Company 
to open a communication by wat r between those Rivers, and 
directed the Treasurer to subsribe, on behalt of the State, 
twenty thousand dollars of the capital stock ot the Company, 
"i This Company is called "■ The Lumber River Canal Compa- 
nv." The route of this communication is not fixed by the 
Charter; and it will be the business of the Principal Engineer 
•to malrk out the route. 

The General Assemblv have directed a Survey to be made 
between the Pedee and Catawba, for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing whether a communication can be opened between those Ri- 
vers, and the trade of the Cata^vba be also brought to the Cape= 
,f ear. As Rocky River seemed to present the most favorable 
channel for this com muni ation, Mr. Couty was instructed to 
make a Survey of this River and ascertain the height of the 
ridge dividing it from the waters of the Cafawba. It appears, 
■from his Report, that a communication betvv'een the Pedee and 
Xatawha, along the route of Rocky River, is impracticable.. A 
route from the Catav^'ba to snme one of the deep Creeks which. 
■run into the Yadkin above Sdisbury, has been proposed ; and 
it would be well to have a Survey made of this, or any other 
Toute, which seems to promise a favorable result : For we are 
destined to lose all tlie trade of the Catawba, unless we can 
.connect it with the Cape Fear. 

During the present Summer, the Rev'd Joseph Caldwell, 
President of our University, was engaged to make a short 
Survey between New- Hope Creek and Eno River, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining whether these two streams could be v^nit^ 


cd by a nayigable Canal, antl a cotamunicatson \:-y water be thaJ. 
oper-ed between the Towr of Hillsbor5u(^b and ih< Cnpe-Fear^ 
His Report of this Sutvej iviil be piaceU in the hijuds ot" the 
Principal Englaeer. 

Public Ilighztniys, 

The Ger.eral Assembly has not given to ihe Commissioners 
any specific irvStruc^iorss upon the subject 6t the Public High- 
ways; and thty, thevetrrc, do not feel themselves at lilit-rty to 
do Tnore than tn c-:^ll the atteniinn of the Principal Engineer to 
this sisbjf-ct generally, as one intimately connected with the 
if ttinai improv'ements of the State, rurnpike Roads acrosis 
the M' urstaios from the head boatable waters of the Yadkih. 
and Catawba, seem to be essential parts of this Improvement. 
So also will be a Turnpike Road from the Catawba to the Pe- 
dee, should it be found impracticable to unite the wr-e^rs of 
those Rivers. The Principal Engineer \vill examine the face 
of the country; its soil, its facilities for Turnpikes and Rail 
Ways, and, in due time, the General Assembly will give in- 
structions oa these subjects. 

i}ralmng of the Swamps ami Marshes in the Sod- 
them and Eastern parts of the Slate. 

The same remarks which have been made on the Public 
Highways are applicable to the draining of the Swamps and 
Marshes. No instructions have btei-i given to the Commis- 
sioners on the subject; but it is so intimately connected wltk 
the Internal Improvements of the State, that the attention of 
the Principal Engineer is particularly invited to it. There la 
rio doubt that the unheahhsntss of the Southern and Eastern _ 
C' 'Unties is to be ascribed, in a great degree, to the Doxious 
exhalaticns from their Swamps and Marshes. The revenues 
ot the State cannot be appliid ti> a more worthy object thiii 
that of improving the health of its inhabitants, and thereby irtf- 
proving their moral and intellectual condition. Those draiti-J 
ings will also reclaim, and subject to the purposes of Agricdl- 
ture, a large portion of the richest lands in the State. From 
the experiments whi h hviv been made by a few enterprising 
individuals, near Lake Pheip^s and Mattamuskeet, no doubt 

cxrsts, that our Swamp Iannis are more pradacijye than axty 
others. The draining of these Swamps, and of oar Marshes 
cannot be done by individuals. The State mast lend its aid 
to effect k. In laying aut the romes for Canals^ in nmxxj parts 
of the Southeyn and Easterti. Counties, jt is probable the Pr'ao- 
cipal Engineer can select routes which will axiswer the double 
purpose of Canals and Drains, 

A primary pars of the Plan of In^emal Improvements con» 
templated by the Legislature, tfeat part which is to gire eflect 
to all the others, is the employment of a Civil EifigiBcer of Sci- 
ence and Experience to direct this great worfe^ llw CoQimis» 
sioners have employed sach an Engineer froro that country 
Which, by BCr. Lasrobe, is called ^^ The Acstdemv of Civg 
Engmeers," where the Science qf Civjl EagirseenBg has at» 
tained a perfection iDn|nown m any other country. 

Under his direction, the Cf>mH)iss!OBeTs hop^^ the fnternal 
Improvciaents of the State will progress, with steadiness and 
J<uigix>ent, unci! the wishes of the people on thk sBbkct shall 
be gratified, the resources id the State shaMbe d^vdoped.and 
hcT pros{>erity be established, 

Submittecl to Hamilton Fultoe, Esqaire, Priadpal Eugraeer 

for the State of North- Caroisna. 

\. I>. MfJKPHEY, Vfimnmn, ^'c 





Jlmount of Birect Tihves, Internal Bulks and Ciis- 
toms. received bif the General Government from, 
this State since the Year i7iil. 

Shetv'rng the Gross and Nett Amount of the Customs^ together; 
xvTth the Amount of Drawbacks^ is'c. and expence^ of Collect 
tion^ VI North Carolina', from the commencement oj the Gene' 
rat Government to 1816, vicbr^ive. 


Gi'oss amouiu oi 
duties on Mc)-- 
ciiantlis^, Toii- 
nai^'e, Fiiies, 
Penalties and 


on M r- 

Diawbacknn Do- 
iTiehtic Spirits 
Suirars, &c. 
Bounties arnl 

Expences of 
II. n and 

N-t Revenue. 

l>i!s. C«s, 

Diis. Ct^. 

Dlls. C^ij. 

f)ils. t 


Oils. Cts. 


122,025 37 

29 45 

141 60 



115,010 75 


85 648 60 

160 98 

S83 8'.t 



78,062 85 


70,570 80 

80 74 

lfc4 50 



63.766 92. 


87.521 05 

305 72 



78.796 33 


109,845 96 

1,052 14 

i.11 50 



90,876 74 


89.774 44 

10,4 1 32 

681 76 



.8,749 15 


119,857 23 

1 254 20 

224 43 



105,^,07 17 


142 t-3»t 21 

5 804 12 

5^9 59 



120.989 17: 


178 (i72 30 

'2,524 n 

720 15 



154,424 01 


159 502 51 

A.555 08 

993 60 



126,461 27 


147.847 28 


1,712 90 



125,128 21^ 


287,068 64 

2,742 38 

3,033 69 



252,397 l>i' 


192.20: 91 

1,785 97 

2.184 37 



159,965 19- 


216,172 75 

3,754 68 

2.353 33 



186,639 9^ 


2i ,0,935 97 

10,646 13 

1.473 22 



165.268 04 


230,385 45 

2,011 56 

1,232 77 



202.055 23 


218 964 88 

5,921 78 




196.392 f: 


51,894 05 

2,390 22 

5i9l 15 



16.918 49 


87,297 57 



65,227 75 


81,425 39 

4,185 55 





71,628 89 

588 05 





65.204 C9 

880 75 



46,320 -l 


477.068 27 

497 24 



456,478 SI 


378,229 30 

480 15 





375,804 03 

3,860 7S, 





287,704 48 

15,084 46 

12 00 






Shewing the Cross Revenues xuhich accrued from the Internal 
Duties^ from 1794, to December 1801. 

Spirits ani 
^^'i'"' St.lls. 

Siles at 




Amount pay. 

\)U^. Cts. 

l)s.Cs|Dll.s.CisJl>l,>. Ct.s. 

Dlis. Cts. 

Diis. Cts. 


16,086 14 

477 57 

1,679 00 

1,368 12.V 

18,102 69i 


16,153 96 

58 32 

1,817 OU 

1,025 GO 

lw,054 28 


27,814 61 

199 763.695 41 

1,175 00 

32,884 78 


1\ 166 16^ 

10'^. 31,4,030 S5 

2,115 CO 

5.801 89 

32,215 71i 


34.756 25 

239 40 4,534 91 

2,755 00 

6,264 01 

48,549 57 


32,913 71 

348 794,834 03 

2,555 (;0 

5.828 38 

46,479 01 


18,174 90 

57-2. 43 5,005 48 

2,320 00 

6,603 42 32,476 23 


Shewing- the Internal Duties w/iich accrued in the Tear 1814. 


Licence. tor; 
Stills & Boil- 
ers employed ., 
in distilling 
liom domes , 
tic materials I 

Dlls. Ct^. D i I sTT^Ts . 
87,73b 22 ,14,147 44 

Licences to 

Sales at 

Stampec! pa- 
per and 
Bank notes 

Dlis. Cts. Dlls. Cts D Is. Cts. 

^3,985 0011,237 62i 9,132 So, 

Paid by banks 
in lieu of 
Stamps on 

Uils. Cts, 
1.8G5 94 

$TATI.SineA^, T Ai^a^^f: 

» i m _l 



2 ;:; 

^ I 

CO t 




=< 6 - 3 

« 2 c I"? _^ 

i J t; ~ c-S 

- - K - >,M 

i« o 

o — 
o -^ 

c<$. o ^'i 


• c- O.^ 

_~ ^ til 3 


-• e o 

-i ■* o 

'-^ c. ^c 

— CO T-ff 


— ^Ji 


r-- CO 


K to 

■% 2 


'^ o?- 

'J' Tt* 

a. 3 


CO ^ 


to -t*" 

9 . 

00 CO 

CTj CC- 



¥ ^^ 




<M 00 



c/: 00 

— CO 


a 00 tC 



^ W CO 


^ «■■ 


. G5 


i2 5 

_^ CT^ -^ 


u fcc 

^ >n '-♦ 
Q b, 'O 


' — ' 

-^ ■ ,„ 

; r-t CO 



15 _05 


tn ■- 

. CO '-• 


— ^ 

m C r;, u 

C — -^ M 

P S ?. 

^ CO o 
CO c^ 

-^ fO '-^ 

Q T-. O^ 

»0 CQ 

00 CO 

1= i 


a» ti 



lA. fi 







£ 5 

,; CO "a* 

" 00 »>.. 


. Ci 

01 <u 

(/. r- ITl 


K a 

Z^ ':c CO 
Q CO -< 


2 00 

0) u 

,JS u 

--^ C-. CI 

' e 5 

. en "o 

^ »-^ 

■-J CO o> 

CL ' 

10 0^ 

^ .-^ 

r/, s;v G> 


2 CO -^ 


'-' « CO 

. CO 

— ? ■" 

X ^ Ci 

■2!' 0-3 

^ a-, a-' 

H '-^ 

10 05' 

*^ . 

• G! 00 

^ to ix. 

^ to 0? 

. C CO. 

— ^* 

t' G? ^^ 

0! "J 


;r ^"1 


C5 to; 


t. -* 


i CO or 


^c. ^ 

J. Sta 



" to >-i 



^jf the amount of Duties rvhich accrued on Ilfanu^^ac'tnr'Ri artZ'^ 
cLes from the I8t/i April, 181 J, to the 'Z2d Fehriiarvf^ 1816, 
'being' the period during^ rvhich these Duties ivere in fs/irce-^ 


MraJs a 


D. C. 

■G2 CG 

22^ 73 1 

L). C. 

li 45^- 

(atsi. Caps 
ii iio.ine s.i 


D, €..]). C. 

3,641 49il92 IG 

Saddles & 

4,307 58 

I>oots fejAleSc 

I), cia^c 

80,G .845 23 

c% Se- 



DTC.i D. C. 
690 824,93-1 01 


Isdyer & 
Leather, j^j^t^j 


}). c 

i'otal a- 



U9 91 15,939 10 


Of the pai/ments rande by North- Carolina, on account isf the 
Direct Tax, laid in 1793, 1813 and 1315, 

Amonnt of ' 
Quota, Jtitc Assess- 

Charg'es oT 



l'a\men(s In | 
to the Trea- F^alancudliie 
siiry to the30tli Sqset. 
;10tfi Sept. \1S;0. 
I«0Q 1 

Dils.. Cts. DIU. Cts. 
Per act of. 1798, 

193,697 96191,063 54 
Peract of lff"13, 1 

520.238 £8 220.959 92 
'^?er actof l.^;i 5, 1 ' 

Oils. Cts. 
13,308 85 

13,774 52 

CO.O'G -^-^ 

JJU>. Lu,i>IJs.€ts, 
170,516 33 7,433 3S 
206,460 42 : 0? 



>\% ♦ 

• V 4 

*^ (Sv^ 




State7nent of the value of the exports from North-Carolina from 
1st October^ 1790, to 30th Sept'unber 1817. 

Dcmest c Pro- 

'ore fjnPro- 



Dils. Cts. 


Dlls. Cts. 

"Dils Ct7« 
























740,933 , 



























. 3 

















Of the value of Exports of Domestic Produce fron each of the 
Ports of North-Carolina^ durihg- the year ending the 20fh 
September^ 1816. 








Dlls. Cts 







itleg^istcfiid Tonnage of North-CarQlina employed in Fareigm 



Tons- |Vc'ars 
















































23,! 61 










Vessels employed 
.n Foreign trade, are 
reiifistered by the 
Collectors of the dis- 
trict where such ves- 
sels belong", and cer- 
tificates of registry 
are granted to the 


X/f th^ Ltir oiled Tonnage of North Carolina employed hi the 
■ Coasting Trade » 

■Y:v'-\ Tons. 

,1790 j 6,5 5 3 
17 269 
2 8,976 
S 2,764 

Year-*! l" 'tis lY ;irs 

17l)7!5,651 1^804 

85,700| 5 




2 7,200 







313,139 18 lOllO. 562 







. ,-rn_i VesselvS employed iijt 

I o'q-'Q '^'^^ Coasf/;/^ Trade must 
l^.,8t};^[jg enroled or licenced 
12,334 by the Collectors of the 
1 1.363i District where they be<. 

II 951 '""S» and the enrolment 
jr. 134O'' licence specifies tke 

' tonnage of the vessel. 


Of the Licenced Vessels under twenty Tons employed in the 
Coasting Trade, ' ' 

r lis 


4! 1,73 7 
5 ! ,778 

Veivs) Tons 





Yf.irsi fons 



4 2/: 

VearsI Tons. 

6 2.471 












^4j st\tisti(;at. tables. 



Of the value of Exports of Domestic Procl.ce from the Port of 
Wihnm^ton^ for s'x months ^ cotnmencing 1st October^ 1815, 
and ending the o\st March^ 1816. 


liumbpr, (Boards, hewn TimbtTj Staves, Shingles, &c,) g 157,200 

Nuval Stores, (Tar, Turpentine, Flosin, Pitch, &c.) 131, 


Live Cattle — Horses, Hi)i;s, B;icoii Hams, 6cc. 4.800 

Wheat, Flciur, Indian Cora Meal, i29,50O 

Rice, 48,000 

Tobacco, 92.000 

Cotton, i31 6,000 

Flax Seed, . 54.00Q 

Produce Shipped Coastwise, 380.000 


23,050, Barrels of Tar. 
1.100 do. of Turpentine. 

£2,500 do. 


400 do. 


100 do. 


250 Casks 

Spirits of Turpentine. 

2,900 Bales 

of ('otton. 

1,S09 Hlids. 

of Tobacco. 

220 Casks 

of Flaxseed. 

1320 Tierces of Rice. 

5,560 Bushe 

Is, rough do. 

S.250 Bbls. : 


9,660 Bushe 

Is Wheat. 

62 Casks 

Bees Wax. 

11 Hhds. 


ISO.roo Ft. Fl 

ooring Plank. 

13,000 W. 0. 

. Hhds. Staves, 




Abstract of Goods ^ Wares and Merchandize ^ of the ^roivth^ pro- 
duce and manufacture^ of the United States, exported from ^ 
the Fort of iVilmington, N. C. cornmeiicing' the ist of OctO" 
bciTy 1816, and ending the ZQth of September^ 1817. 


Staves and Heading, Thousands 


Boards, Plank & Scantling, M feet 

Hewn Timber, (Pine) Tons 

Naval Stores— Tar, IS'bls, 



Hams and Bacon, 



Indian Corn 

Sliip Bread, 
Flax Seed, 





Casks of 7" bvishels 



Quantity! Qnantiiy shipjied Coastwise 
to Forejj?" to other Ports of ihe United 
Countries. Stat«;s. 



4 931 









Bees WaX, 


Spirits of Turpentine 


"Varnish of do. 




22 588 





458 529 









1 ,534 


43 boxes, 4 Iilids 3 Tierces, 10 
b:>!>. 7"^^ Pieces, & 37 lbs. 

13 bbls. 3 hhds, 8 casks and 1 

820 Casks (of 7 bushels.) 

1092 tierces &: 400 bush, rough* 

1 773, Rales. 

79() hhds. 7 bbls. 3 tierces & 11 

1 hhd. and 10 bbls. 
218 barrels. 

56 casks and barrels. 

57 bales and bags. 

The total value of Exports to Foreign Coiintries, comprising, besides the a- 
bove, sundry domestic articles of minor importance, and a small anr.Qunt of fo- 
reign Goods, during the year commencing the 1st October, 1816, and ending 
oOih Seik ember, 1817, was §713,961 4*8 

A great variety of articles, not of the product of N Carolina, and some arti- 
cles of produce of small importance, are omitted in this .\bstract. 

No returns being required from Collectors, of Goods shipped Coastwise, iha 
an icles are not particularly described, and tlie quanli' y and value are noc speci- 
fied in the Manifests delivered in by tiie Masters of Vessels 

Vessels licensed fir the Coasting Trade, goii.g from one Siate to ah adjoining 
State, are not required by law to enter or clear 

(Jj* The Manifests of 14 vessels, which cleared in the month of M.irch, for 
different ports m the United States, being maslaid, are not included in the above. 



Of Domestic Produce boated from Fayettevjlle during- the ycci 
ending SOth September ^ 1816. 

Species of Prodiicp. Vulue. 

Q,5S7 h!uls. Tobacco, g4:\0.0;:o 

8.292 bales of Cirtton. ^6;M.900 

11.813 bushels of Wbeat, 17.-19 

30,341 bushels .if Corn, 10,341 

5.164 casks FI:ixsof^,(l 77.460 

29 761 gallons Spirits 23,808 

12 962 bbSs Flour, 129.629 

Tallow, Wax, Bacon, Furs, Lard, Feathers, 2cc. 50.000 


, In pstimatinj: tlie Prices, reference wa^ bad to the valuation at 
th« CusToin House, and to the New-York Prices Current of the 
proper date. 

It is vorv difficult to ascertain correctly the quantity of Domes- 
lie Produce siiippefi from V\ ilniin<>;fon, a» great part of it is shipped 
Coastwise, and the Mai^ters of Vessels enii;.ju,ed in the Coasting 
Traile are not required to specify in their Manifests either the 
quantity or value of Goods shipp^'d. In the year-en<linj:j 5(.'th Sep- 
tember 1816. there were boated from Fayetfevjlie to N\ ilniingfon, 
for shipment. 2330 hnds. Tobacco. Yet the Books of t!ie Cu^tttrn 
House at \Vi!min;^ton contain an account of only 1309 hluls s);ip- 
ped fi>r that pott. More than 1000 hhds wore siiipped Coastwise^ 
cjf v/hicli fiO return was made to the CoUecto.". 


Population of North Carolina at different periods^ 
L D. 1753 17.^3 17D0 1800 1310 

45,000 200,000 393,951 478,103 555,500 

tlcnsiis of Nortli-Carohna in August^ 1790= 

^ i 


<U <:S 

o o 


^ in 

r^ '^ 






<u ^c -i 

OJ o 



O in 


5 1 

.4'? Qsft 





100,571 393^95 A 


Census of North-Carolina in August^ 1800. 
FilEE WHifE xMALi^S. 


*- - 
1. ""- 

■^ -3 




"C ?? 

'C :« 

1? ^ 



C il 




'O ba . 

"C '•J? . 

-c --fi 

— • 


c = tn 

c c: -Ji 

c s •« 


^ "a — 

<0 r, ^ 




^9 -^ '-: 


u_ > 

u- o £ 

^ o a 



O ? '-2 


C .- iJ 





S 1 ,209 



o?5 sis 

ffi J! Of 

:D ." " - oi . 

1 :: z-za ^os ;r«s -=ii i o 

L) C C=-2 CE3 0=-^ < A-c i/i fH 

59,074 25,874 3;<i,9o9 30,665 17,514 7,043 133,296 478,103 

Asrkre^afe amount cf each description of person'^ rvifhin Nortfv 

Carolina, agreeably to the Census taken in the year 1810. 




t_ M 

1- tn 


S -3 

4, "3 

cc 3 


— :! 

"C ^ 

S A 


? V 

t 5i 



^ ""^ 

3 — 

H? ■"• 


"C =J2 . 

r; =^ , 

-3 =0 . 


c E « 

c - « 

5; ^ 4> 

C - -fl 

o - <u 


21 o a 

»o - -3 



O =-i3 

O '^ i? 






^ S^ ^'o .^'-S ^i^ 






'C • 


<a i « 



& ^ 




3 — 



'S ':j: . 




C Z U) 




rt ^ !> 




^ - = 








O =^--2 



< o5-3 CO E- 

65,421 30,053 37,933 33,944 20,427 10,266 168,824 555,,5<^,' 

^^ Statistical TAiiLiis. 

Kames of the 

Whites and other 


free persotis 
not faxed. 






















■ 927'7 




1 1 ,007 


£5 '24 
















23 1 !) 










































10,1 65 

















11 a V wood, 









41 rr 









* 2330 









































13 082 

Ixew- Hanover, 

























f\iU 558Q C>589 9169 

K:tnr!.ylpb, 9314 798 10.,li'3 

Butheriord, 12,2SC> 979 l'r,.'202 

K'.ckingh^im, 8202 2114 lO.SlG 

Robeson, "€]88 1340 7528 

Riclifnontl, 5394 1301 6G95 

Rowan, 17,786 3757 21.54r4 

Stakes, 9899 1746 11,645 

Sampsonj, 4571 2049 662a 

Surry, 8897 1469 10.366 

Tvrrell, 2454 910 3364 

Warren, 47:i2 €282 11,004 

WasJiin^toDj • 217/ 1287 3464 

lV:;ke, ^1,208 5S78 17,C8^ 

Wi lies, 7860 1194 90 v4 

"VVayne. 5931 2756 8687 

385,iS76 168,824 * 555,500 

^tantUij '^f Land and Number of DxoeUing- Houses and Sla'oea^ 
-with their value as assessed for the Direct Tax of 1799. 


Number of 

Acres. Valuation. Number. Valuation. Number. 
20,956,467 §27,969.479 11,760 §2,932,893 59^968 


S155.385 96 7,296 67 29.984 192,666 63 

Direct Tax of 1799 gl92,666 62 

Ditto . f 1814 220,238 28 

Ditto of 1815 440,476 56 

S853,38l 38- 


Of the value of l.d^ds and Slaves in North Carolina^ an assess- 
ed for the Direct Tax of 18ij. 

Jiv&ra^e va^ 


Vahie. of 

Vcdup of 

lue nf Land 


1.(11' d . 

Sin i'f s. 

per acre. 




g2 64 




3 55 




4 25 



409.21 1 

4 63 



574 944 

3 37 




6 66 




4 IB 





3 BH 


5S7,5' 5 


3 09 


2,528 862 


4 96 




5 45 



437 512 

■ - 292,171 

2 50 




2 72 




2 39 




3 94 



1,435.450 ., 

4 34 




2 44 






3 72 



977,39 > 

3 81 


385 131 


2 43 




3 53 




3 63 



595 965 

1 79 


-, 3,144,620 


3 52 






3 60 




3 52 



766 692 

2 15 




2 64 






2 62 




3 61 



• 799,075 

1 83' 




1 71 




1 17 


554 276 


1 26 










. ^fno1^65 

1 71 



1 --3 



446. 1S4 

1 £4 




1 56 




I 40 




1 11 






3 5 



1,21 6,;- 47 

3 25 



661, £92 

2 41 






2 S3 





Gull lord, 



3 5 



502,500 - 

3 se 




























Rowan, 2,176,7'20 1,179,63' 

Ki!i-I',.:!)'i. ' 801,-207 2)4550 ' 

Cluithai'ii, 1,063 085 795,22;J, 

Lincoln, 1,285,198 696,950 

M'cklen'wi-g, l,3o9,334 944,864 

Ciijarrus, 640,274 299,216 

Rincombe, 669,069 228,276 

Hivw )'.(!, 201,9iG 62.964 

Birke. 840481 422,389 

llatiierforJ, 943,914 ■ . . 454,258 

Sn.-ry. 841.2:6 335.243 

vVil'os, 457^.253 '273.772 

I-vh>l!, 802,458 638,462 

A>-:iie, 211,321 ' '' 4Q,ll7 

Total, 253,521,513 40,667,314 


OJ the value of Lanis in North-Carolina as assessed by the 
Proprietors for the State fax of 1815. 

Counties, 'Jlcre.s jf Land. Value. 

Anson, 322,574 S460,65O 

As'ie, 190,647 180,019 

Brunswick, 436,864 378,63d 

Buncunba, 379,378 541,722 

Beiiufort, 293,886 360,600 

Burke, 513,624 744.425 

BhiJeii, 475,174 522,301 

Bertie, 326,49.5 2.452,254 

Craven, 400 820 662,922 

Carteret, 135.242 265.788 

Currifuck, i32,!)04 254,432: 

Cam Jen, 114.123 220.135 

Caswe!!, 250,700 783,379 

Chowan, 92,010 318,,81G 

Chatham, 465-715 965,765 

Cu nherhuid, 672 747 818,830 

Cabarrus, 15-2,562 496,739 

Columbus, 220,595 191,238 

Duplin, 404.265 479.443 

Edo-ecombe, 393,225 1,610,903 

Fraukim, 266,212 . 822/4.0 



45iii5fonL. S65,4S© 1^04^5,704 

t5ates', * ;l 57,852 157.h52 

Granvilfc, 409,422 l,U7.fe59 

Gn-etje, 148,188 580,671 

Haiitas, S87,15r, ■ 1,802,513 

Hertford, 174 024 C48J 91 

Bvde, . 2J0.300 S95.571 

Hsvwflod, 143.950 263,154 

IrwWl, 381.547 =651,083 

Jt.nes, 2j8.0S7 ^ 602,786 

Johnston, 47f»,348 ' ^63,253 

I.5neoSn, C'^O.ISO 1,159,314 

I^enoir, ^^05,372 280,970 

Moore, 312,662 336,882 

MoiitgomiTj, 324,968 392,635 

Meck)eaburg, • .398,582 1,216,582 

Martin. 173.742 518.592 

Kew-Hanover, 341,533 241,533 

Nash, 332,497 664.537 

IS'orthampton, 305,431 1.5521,796 

Onsknv, :'238,056 522,601 

Orange, .^'26,625 2,651,742 

Person, 198,963 478,460 

!Pasquotank. 108.825 233.228 

?>jtt,. 317,364 •976.152 

Perquimons, 123,702 283,790 

Rowan, 738,175 1:58,70,142 

Randolph, 37J.,29S 756,020 

Rockinghiim, 293,150 664,886 

Robeson, 60^-584 4a'),n9 

Richraond, t-29S.592 266,914 

Rutherford, 424,150 7J 9,739 

Sampson, ,387,456 606,591 

Son-v, 44S.IW2 064,517 

Stvikes, 40r,2S2 368,809 

TjrreH^ 149,170 251,599 

■VVashlngttfi), 359,r9§ £92,625 

"VVi kes, S4G,'920 386-347 

I'Vivrren, -298,445 S. 103.229 

T arne, 312,626 - 969 ..3% 

Wake, 551 -OSS 1,486,301 



'J^fie folhm'ing' Table^ nrill shexxjr the mvn her of Militia hi each 
Counti/, and also the Polmlation represeateii in ihc Congress 
of the United States ; which popidatiou mcludas alL ike 
Whites a)idtwo fifths of the Bla&ks^ 

CON G ilKSSI ■' ) X A L D J S TEiCl'S. 


Federal Xiitabers^ 



6,^3a ' 





Pax] uo tank, 


























1,0, 1 r& 





























"™ *, 

Ivreerigj, ' 

4,! 31 









4,0 tS 


















^ 8,034 






12,478 -^ 










Ui iiiiswick, 




5 7ji) 

6 899 
5 . 01 



5 3 















6.' 3 



1,05 J 


5 990 



















1 ,072 





10.834 , 



. 10.949 


41. '290 







■ 9.793 

1 .(fOO 


3 1.523 

J. 143 















1,6 J 1 


54 956 




1 3',S64 








S3. 904 



Irpi It'll, 




1 '>,()(»•) 





T!ie Revenues of North-Carolina are derived from 

1. 'I'axes. 

2. Dividosids on Bank Stock. 

3. Dividends on Navigation Stock. 

4. Sales of vacant Lands. 

The produce of the Taxes has varied from year to year, as the 
lists of tax;iblc propertj, and the annumt imposed upon each arti" 
cle, have been increased or din)inis!ied by tlie Geiieral Assembly. 

Tlie amount of ^Faxes paid into the Treasury, exclusive of ihe 
Tax on Bank Stock, was in 


S37,076 85 


42,624 04 


42.759 97 


47 094 73 


47.951 08 


52,207 10 


CI,481 60 


C8,803 92 

1815 , 

84,923 78 

18 If) 

87.568 84 


84,7U1 88 


Of the amoinit of Tax paid upon each article of Taxable pro- 
per tij for the year 1817. 


D. C. 

35,528 16 



L>. C.i iJ, C. 


I) C. 




1). (J.i 0. c 

32 027 64i5,531 78;l,834 25:1,282 12109 85 


D. C. 

ZJS5 34 


i). C 

-^n 30 

a les 

8). C, 


Kx.iibition n 
Kaiural &. Art.. 

D C. 

827 20 

' y Ilia ).< stock 
J raders 

D. C.j '). C. 
ljUl9 Sill 3,500 



D. C, 



D. K.: 

9S,2J1 88 


Of the^Ainount 
Goun' its. 


Beau fort,. 


























of Taxes pTnd by each Countij fa; 
Amount pan! 

S 904 02 


1,249 \7 
1,212 54 

899 54 
2,1 "3 26 
2,388 4j 

479 62 

723 60 

752 77 
1,872 7^ 
1,137 A7 
1,839 76 
5,718 04 

795 14 

402 2-5 
2,623 59 


2,147 IS 
1,216 39 

70^5 59 

318 37 
:i,414 62 

997 59 

















Perq almond. 
















the :ji:a>' 1817* 

A 1 /aiil^ 

The State ovvjis 

\\\ the Cape-l-'eai Bank 1250 Shares, equal to 3125,000 

Iti tlie Bar.k of Newbeni 1250 S.hares, equal to 125,000' 

In the Staie Jkuk of NorEh-CarolinaJ 2500 Shares-, 
cpual to 250,00a 

5.000 Sharesj equal to^ 


Tive Re^'cnne derived from the Bank Stock, when the dividenil^ 
tiVQ 8 per cenf. will be as follows — 

8 ^er cent, upon 5('0,000, is 840,000 

Deduct 4 per cenf. paid to the State upon deferred 

Stock, say upon S100,000 4,000 

Total annual Rpvenue from Bank Stack when the di- 
vidends are 8 per cent. S3G,0G(^ 

The State lifi^ subscribed of tl^e capital Stock of the 
U('anoke Navi;>;a(ion Company, g25,n0O 

Yadkii) Company, 25,000 

C!ape-Fear Companyy 15,f'nO 

Nouse Company, 6,000 

Tar River Company, 8.000 

Catawl)a Company, GOOO 

Lumber River Canal Company, 20,000 

'lioanoke and P^iinptico Com|>any, 5.000 

Clubfoot and Harlow Creek Compp-ny, 2,500 

;Sl 12,500 

For tliis Stock, partial payment? have been made, as they have 
■been required \»y the respective Companies. No dividends have 
been made as yet, e:;eept one by the Cape-Fear Company, nor will 
thoy be made until the works of i\\Q Companies shall have progres- 
sed cansiderabl V. The Charters authorise dividends of 15 per cent. 

If the State should be disposed to make lier Navi<^afion Stock a 
source of public Rev^'nue, it will be found more productive than an 
■^qua! aniount of Bank Stock : But much time is required to con>- 
plete Public Works, and this source of Revenue will not be pro- 
-ductive for two or XWtqq years. 

The annual average amount derived from this source, maybe es- 
tjnjated at B-IJ50Q 

The Projluce of the Taxes for 1817 beins; assumed as the prohs- 
'l)le amount of the Tares for succeed in ;:• year?.., the annual Revenue 
Sef the State will be as follows — 

From Taxes, ^98,201 

From Dividends on Bank Stock, S6,000 

From -Entries of ^'acant I-ands, 4,50c.i 

To+s.L g338yOi. 




The disbursements ?' '" Ti-eastirj amountcni in the yea.- 

1800 '0 

1801 to 
180^2 to 

1803 to 

1804 to 
18 5 to 
18; 6 to 

1807 to 

1808 lo 

g48.4l9 ,- - 
57,75 8 87 
82,895 40 
57,683 67 
62,055 93 
83.499 20 
€3,955 90 
61.561 70 

1 809 to 
1 8 ! to 
181 1 to 
1812 to 
lbl3 to 

1814 to 

1815 to 
181 G to 
1817 to 

90.381 87 
74,179 41 
68,694 55 
5r.5G8 92 

80,013 52 
1 1*5 796 75 
142 942 74 
207.0b 1 51 

The'dfiittands at the Treasury were fjreatly increased c!urinq;rhe 
Tears 1814, 1815 and 1816, by the Ute. War. In the year iafJ7, 
fh«^ Treasury redeeuied S61.781 of Paper Ciirrency. and paid 
S62.000 to the Baviks of Ntnvbern and Cape-Fear in discbar- e of 
the debt which the State owed for Stock in those llasiks. 

Expenditures at tlie Treasury may be classed under two headSo 

1. On ai-count of the Civil List. 

2. On account of the coritirijient charges of Government. 
r»?sburspments on account of the Civil List i\jv the year 1817 

ivere as follow. 

Legislative Department, S28,762 98 

Executive d^. 2,526 32 

Judiciary do. 13,891 40 

Secretary of State, 1,145 12 

Public Printer, L075 

Treasury Department. 2,396 94 

Ctiinntroller's do. 1,177 57 

Adjutant General's do. 30/ 44 

S5 1,282 77 
The ON'))ences of the .Judiciary Pepartment will be increased 
gOjSOo under tlie act of JSIS— 

Salary of Judu^es of Supreme Court, S7,500 

Inciease of salary of Circuit Judges, 1,200 

Salary of Reporter, , 5C0 

Deduct Salaries foniierlj paid Solicitors 


This sum of 

being added to the Civil List of 1817, 

v,il! make the total disbursements hereafter ca ac- 

coiiut of the Civil List, g58j083 







Thp rnntinjient char2;es vary from year to year, as the General 
\sse.ii)i)lj aiilliorize expenditures lor particular objects — Iti the 

vear 1818, tiiere were liir;5e charj^es upon the contingent Fundo 
]':i the Contptroller's Statement for that year, they are arranged 
K'ider tlse tullowing heiuls. 

Contini^ences S 2,768 28 

Court Martini at Newbern 381 04 

Mrs. J. A. Hiakeley 400 00 

Gen. Wii^hio^tdii's Statue 3,1 6o 00 

State Dank for deferred i'ayment 6.303 74 

Jloanoke Navigaiioa Company 2,500 00 

Pensioners 340 00 

Con^re<;sionaI Election 154 97 

JPresidentia! Election . 14 20 

Mnney burnt 61,781 29 

Public Library 304 25 

I'ank of Cape- Fear 31,000 00 

Land deficiencies 311 01 

Shenfi"'s to settle 869 SO 

"Cape-Fear Co^ripahy 3,000 00 

'Bunk of Newbern S1,000 00 

Keuse Navigation Companies, 6oO 00 

Inland Navigation, ,5.050 00 

Yire Proof Offices, 2,229 66 

g'i46.257 7'! 

The largest sums paid out of the contingent fund for the year 
1818, cannot be considered as permanent charges. Two items 
only, to-wit, money burnt and money paid to the Cape-Fear and 
I'Jevvbern Banks, make up the sum of gl 23,781 29. 

The retlemption of the Paper Money may be considered as charg- 
ed upon the Contifigent Fund, and creating an annual cliarge there- 
«n of gl6.000, (tlie net amount of Dividends on Stete-Bank Stock 
at 8 per cent.) until the redemption be completed, which will bes 
tvifhii) the next five years. 

The debt to tlie Banks of Newbern and Cape-Fear for Stuck, 
has been paid : so that the Contingent Fund tnay be considered 
as discharged irom 5>107,781 29, which were payable out of iftn 

This will leave ^38,476 45 as the amount which will be pay- 
able out of that fund hereafter, supposing the expenditures to re- 
eiain the same as in 1818 — but the expenditures for Inland Navi- 
gation will bf- increased, and probably other items may be added* 
It will be safe, however, to estimate the Contingent Charges of Go- 
■vernment hereafter, at §45,000 ; in which sum wiU be included ati 
jiay meats to be niade for Navigation Stock, 


'/O STATISTICAL. 'i'Al'.LtiiS. 


The Revenue hereafter, supposing the Taxes to remain as thej 
tiri'. iiKiy be esfinuited at £138,000 

The Expenditures will be 

1. On jiccoiuit lii the Civii List, S58,000 

!?. On accifUiit oi" the Coatii»nent C'har<i;es of 

Goveruiaent, 455OOO 

S 103,000 

Surplus ot Revenue annually, SS5,000 


According to the Report of the 'JVeasurer, theie were remaining 
in the Treasury on tlie 1st Novenibcr 1818, ami subject to be ac- 
counted for, the sum of §125,254 >58 

Add the Revenue I'ov the year 18 is— say 138,000 00 

263,234 58 
The Expenditures (Vom 1st Noveii^.ber 1318, to 

1st November 1819, uill be — say 103,000 00 

*" Leavin,Q; :n the Treasury on 1st Nov'r, 18^ gl60 234 58 

Add the Revenue for 1811) |r 138,(*00 00 

. S298,2-34 5S 

peduct Expenditures for that year 103,000 CO 

Leavine; in the Treasury on 1st November 1820 g 195 234 58 
Add the Revenue for 1820 138,*000 00 

'S333,2S4 58 
De-iufct Expenditures for that year 103,000 00 

Leaving in the Treasury on 1st November 1821 S-30.234 .^8 
Add the Revenue for 1821 138,000 00 

S368.234 58 
Deduct Expenditures for that year 103,000 00 

Leaving in the Treasury on 1st November 1822 ^265,234 58 
This sum will be increased 835,000 annually, until the Paper 
money be redeemed; when the annual increase will be S5l,t>00. 

This V;ew (>f the Finances shews what funds the State has at her 
disposal withuvst increasuig the Taxes. 


iif the ahiUhf of the S'ale in proindp ample Funds. 
Jhv Iilernal ImiivoveitieAis. — fVitta Funds she 
noiv hits at command. 

TME preceding Statistical Tables have been drawn up, to 


3. The amount of revenus paid directly by North-Carolina to 
the Ueneral Governuient since the aclujition of. the Federal 
2. The pliysical resources of the State. 
From these tables a very imperfect idea of the actual amonnt 
of revenue derived by the General Government from this State, 
can be lorraed : Fot: more than two thirds of the imported 
r>-;e;ch,indi2e sold in North-Carolina, are purchased in Nevv- 
"^ -rk, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Petersburg, Nor- 
folk and Charleston ; and the duties upon this merchandize 
are paid at the Custom Houses of New-York, Pennsylvania, 
I^Iaryland, Virginia and South Carolina. There can be little 
doubt, that the revenue derived by the General Govcr ;ment 
irom North-Carolina, since the adoption of the Federal Con- 
stitution, has exceeded tv/enty miiiions of dollars. This fact 
reminds us more sensibly than any other, of the humiliating 
condition of the State. Whilst we have thus liberally contri- 
buted to the support and the aggrandisement of the Union, how 
have vve been viewed by the General Go'.'erni-ncnt, or by our Sis- 
ter States ? H;i^e we not been uniformly treated with cold ne- 
glect by the one, and open contempt by the others ? Thure is 
tio citizen of the State, whose sensibility is not depraved, who 
has noticed the passing events of the times, and not suffered 
a severe mortification from the reflection that such has been 
our treatment. Vve have been considered the outcasts of the 
Union, who^e virtue and intelligence gave no claim to the 
high honors of the Government, and whose integrity was un- 
wcjrthy of a share in- its admnjstration. We have planted a 
colony that has outstripped us in public distinction ; we have 
:ede(l thi?i colony, v^'ith its extensive territory, (now forming 
a distinguished State,) to the General Government ; we have 
been an obedient and patriotic people ; and what have we got 
in return ? We have been honoured by the appointment of 

one of our citizens to a Foreign Embassy"; of another to the 
Bench of the Supreme Court oi the United States'* ; and of u 
third, as Comptroller of the Treasury- : We have had two vni- 
sjrrible Light Houses erected, one at Cape Hjtteras, the other 
at Bald Head, near Smithville ; and two wretcitcd Forts built, 
one at Beaufort, the other at Smithville. Out of the>y 
millions which we have paid, not two hundred thousand have 
been expended for this State. What has been the cause of 
this neglt ct ? It is to be iound in the supineness and apathy 
of the State ; in its want of pride and character. W'c are ne- 
ve? thought of, until the electi(in of a President of the United 
States is coming on ; and then vve are complimented for oust 
good scnse^ our stern Repiibacanism^ ar<l devotion to the good 
cause ; we are tacked to the Virginia Ticket, and we vute ac- 
cordingly. When this Farce is over, wc are laughed at ior a 
"iew weeks, and no more remciTjbered until the next elfcctioii 
come on, and then the same Farce is acted over again. 

De Witt Clinton, the present distinguished Governor oS 
^ew-Yoik, observes, in one of his Messages to the Legisla- 
ture of that State, that " character is as important to States as 
\l is to individuals; and the glory of a State is the conimon 
property of its citizens;." '1 o this we may add the common 
remark, which is no less true of States than it is of individu- 
als, •■' that the man who knows not how to respect himself, 
will not be respected by others." North-Caroiina has not, 
since the year 17S4, CBltivattd a respect for hers If, nor has 
she cought to acquire a character in the Union. She has re- 
gained careless and spiritless, until her citizens hive formed 
Kot orily political, but commercial and local feelings with the 
people of Virginia and South Carolina ; feelings whivh have 
abstracted their l.sve from North Carolina, and rendered them 
anuch more indifTerent to her improvement and^gr atness, than 
to the improvement and gveatmss of those Slat s. If this 
State oi things be suiTered by the General Assembly, would it 
2iot be better at once to surrender our Charter as an Indepen- 
dent State, snd incorporate ourselves vv^ith Virginia and South- 
Carolina I It is certainly more honoralile for us to form in- 
tegral parts of our neighboring States, which are respectable 1<. 
Iionorable, than to be mere contemptible appendages to them* 

Why do we reinain in this humiliating condition I No other 
cause has ever yet been assigned lor it in the General Assembly, 
than that we are too poor to get out of this condition. A view 
of the resources of the State, v.'ili shew to any man of commou 
v^cnse, that this is only an apology to men for not doing the:? 

^'^ensiftl P.'^vle. b Alfred Monre- <^ John Steel r 


d^ty ; an o^- hand t^icuse to weak and timicl minds, thnt can 
be offtrtd upon all occasions, whilst the true cause is to He 
found in the want of public spirit, of State pride, and of State 
feeling. States of inferior resources have rendered themselves 
not only great, but ornaments of this Republic ; they have at- 
tracted the esteem of their own citizens and the admiration 
oi foreigners — Why shall we " net do likewise P^ Why shall 
a citizen of this State, when trav' lling in distant countries he 
be asked. Whence he is from i Answer, That he is from the 
United States, and be ashamed to say he is from North-Caro- 
lina ? If the present generation be willing to bear this sad 
degradation of character, are the\ willing to entail it upon their 
children ? A good name ia a richer inheritance than property ; 
and pcst^^rity will vtnerate much more, those who transmit to 
them renown ai;d manly virtues, than those who transmit only 
lands and negro slaves. A conviction ot the reproach 
we suffer, and the want of encouragement to industry and en- 
terprize, have driven from the State, a large portion of her 
most useful population. 1 hey have gone lo meet more con- 
genial souls in the Wilderness ot the W^est, where they have 
reart d up, within a few \ ears. State s that have already taken the 
lead ol their Mother Country. Will noi all our useful p-'pulation 
soon follow them, it something be not done to make Norch- 
Carolina a dtsiraiilc place of resi(Ience ? Society owes its 
progress to the influence and example ol a lew individuals ; 
and the loss of one man ol ^ nterprize, int' lligtnce a;.fl virtue, 
ij} a greater loss to the Slate, than that of hve hundred or(ii- 
nary mm., And it may here be asked, v,ho arc tho^e who hav« 
latelv le(t us? Are th y not our respectable Planters 
and Farmers, and our most useful Mechanics f Any man 
w.ho travels througli the State, and vviLrj(.sses the emigration, 
will answer this question with feelings of sorrow. 

Are we not ai)le to improve our condition ? We have a? 
much territory as New-York ; we have at least two-thirds of 
her population ; we have a more grnial climate, and our soil 
is little, if at all, inferior to hers. She has resolved to unite 
the Commerce of the Lakes wiih that of the Atlantic, by the 
■way of the Hudson River; and to execute this Work at the 
expense of five millions of dollars. She has resolved to makt: 
three hundred and fift\-two miles of CanalHng, and within 
the last two years has executed mnre than one half of tht; 
work; she has resolved to impose Taxes to raise the money; 
atid notwithstanding the objections of stock-jobbers, of short- 
sighted politicians, and of (the most contemptible of all) elec- 
tioneering Candidates for public favour, the people have paid 

those taxea wiih promptiiucle, and now have the prospect cf 
"^vtruth. coi'VeJiicncc and grcatntss, oi' whicli they had no idi;;- 
wiit n this great \voric was commfiiced. Is this St>ite too poo; 
to iollovv', at kasi in part, "he exainpie ot New-York ? ' It 
tcrtainl} is not. 

It Will be seen, by rciVvence to the preceduig Tobies, th.TC 
in tlie vear 1815; the people of Norih-Caroiiiia paid to the 
Geni^Tal Govtrmnent more than nine hundred liiousand del" 
lais, for the Direct lax and Internal Duties, a.nd three hun- 
dred and seventy-hvc thou'=and dollars iur duties on import- 
td goods : and also paid eighty five thousand dollars ior the 
support of their own State Governaient- Move than a mif- 
lion of dollars were paid in that ytar for taxes, directly by tlis 
Planters, Farmers and Mechanics of she StaLe» We ail re- 
collect thai these tax'j.s wtre paid witli ease and with prompii- 
tude. It will be seen, by reference to the Tables, than in 1314, 
j>nd 1816, the people of this State paid in each of those years, 
very large sua^s fortaxts. These Tallies illustrate clearly the 
resources of the State, and the large sums which car. be com- 
manded by the Government, without oppression to the pt-o- 
■\-)ttty whenever the situation of the country }equires thrm.— 
Since the year 5 81G, we ha\'e paid tor taxes, exclusive of the 
Custom House Duties, a!-!jut eighty thousand dollars annually. 

Few men have the courage to impose taxes ; and any plari 
for internal Improvenients which is bottomed upon an increase 
of the taxes, light as they are, v;ill not be likely to meet wi'. h 
success. This renders it necessar}' to enquire what resources 
are at the disposal of the General Assembly, for public works, 
vith'jut resorting to further taxation— These resources are 

3. Tiie surplys monies rem.iinirij^ in tiie Treasury. 

.^2. Tiie lands in Vca Cherokee Kation of Indians, within our 

.5. Tlie S'jni (if SIGO.COO the Banks of Newborn and 
Cape-Fear are bound to loan to l!ie State tluring the conti- 
nuance of their Charters. 
Vv i^en irealin;^ of the Finances of the State, a view vt^as gi- 
ven of tlieir present, and future probable condition, for seve- 
ral years. It is very desirable that the annual surplus fund 
}n th<; Treasury could be increased, by fixing the land-tax at 
eight cents.. It is very in^i mate rial to the land holders whether 
they pay eight cents or six > but the difference which these 
sums yield at the Treasury is considerable : and one half of 
the people GO not to this day know that the land tax has beerj 


The extent of the ccuniry pc^sessed by the Cherokee tribe 
of Indians, and King vviihin oar boundary, is not well known, 
the iinr.ts having never yet Lci n definitively fixed. But it is 
pielty certain that \vc own more than a million of acres, whicb 
are now in the possrssio.) ot t .e Cherokees. The Map of 
Messrs. Price and Sin-thcr does not shew any part of this 
land Upon th it Map, Pigeon River a|ipears at almost the 
Western extremity of ihe State. Hc.ywood Court-House is 
to the West of Pigeon River^ and the dividing line, between 
the Whites and Chercrkees, is filteen miles to the West of that 
Ci.uirt- House. From Hayvvood Court House to the South- 
'Wvstern extremity of the State, the distance is computed at 
eighty mdes; but this distance is not well ascertained. Most 
ot this country has lately been purchased from the Cherokees, 
and they are to surrendeir the possession by the firot day of 
January nextr When roads shall be made through this conn- 
try, it will be found one of the most valuable sections cf the 
State. On the various branches of the iiighwassee, Tennes- 
see, Tuckesegee and Oconelaltee Rivers, are found extensive 
bottoms, of equal fertility with the Valley of the Yadkin, in 
Wilkes, and of the Catawba, in Burke. There are extensive 
bodies ot good uplands, having for their growth. Hickory, 
Post- Oak and Dogwood. A large portion of the country lie& 
\vell for farming, and the adjacent mountains furnish an in- 
exhaustible range for cattle. The climate is mild and healthy. 
if a judicious phm be adopted by the General Assembly for 
the sale of these lands, they will yield nearly a mdlion of dol- 
lars. They are a rich treasure, and should be disposed of to 
the best advantage. It would be very unwise to hasten the 
sale of these lands. Let people become acquainted with them, 
let their value be fairly understood before they be brought 
into the market. If the General Assembly will cause a good 
road to be made from Haywood Court-House, through those 
lands, to the South-Western Boundary of the State, this p;irt 
of North- Carolina will soon become well known. This road 
would ini mediately become the Great Highway fron; this 
State and Virginia, to the upper parts of Georgia and Alabama. 

It is understood that the best gap for crossing the Blue 
Hidge, is at the head of Tennessee River, on the route towards 
Augusta. The Commerce of the Cherokee country v/ill pro- 
baljly take that direction, and the convenience of the Augustu 
iriarket will certainly add to th.e valnc of the lands. 

The Banks of Newbern and Cape- Fear are bound by their 
C'hirters to loan to the State one-tenth part of their Capital 
Stock. The Charters have yet fourteeii years to run, duri.Tg 


'all which time the State can have the use of Si 60,000 frar; 
those Banks. 

From this view of the subject, it will be seen, that the re- 
sources which the General Assembly have at their command 
without resorting to further taxation, exceed a milUon of dol- 
lars. The question now arises, how ought those resources to 
he applied ? It applied to Internal linprnvi.rnt'nts, to v/ha't 
specific objectSj and how ought the expenditure to be appor- 
tioned ? 

Of the management and appUcdiion of the Fund for 
Intf^vnal Improvemenis. 

Until the Cherokee lands can be sold, the State should, frona 
yeor to year, as the condition of the Public Works may re- 
•quire, make loans from the Banks; and pledge its faith that 
the proceeds of the sales of those lands shall be applied to 
-the payment of these loans. The annual surplus money in the 
Treasury will be more than sufficient to pay'the interest of a 
Joan of half a million of dollars. The Banks will find ample 
reasons for making exteneive loans to the State for Public 

1. The money loaned will be ex'pended within the State. 

2. Tlie wealth of their dealers, and of the State at large, wil 
be increased. 

3. The great object, dasirable to aJl, but particularly to the 
Banks, will be gained : We shall ship our own productions 
and have markets at home. 

The Banks should make sacrifices to effect this last objects 
While their paper strays with our Commerce from Charleston 
to New-York, ihey will be embarrassed in their business, and. 
to use a common expression^ often put to their Shifts, Whe:. 
our Commerce shall be concentrated at home, we shall ov. 
our debts at-home, and be under no necessity of .sending ou 
Sank paper abroad. 

The General Assembly should authorise the expenditure o!:' 
an hundred and fifty thousand dollars annually. It would hap- 
pen that one half of that sum would not be required within a 
^particular year, and yet a much larger sum be required for the 
succeeding year. The writer of this Memoir is well convin* 
ced,that Public Works, which depend upon the Funds of pri- 
vate men, will not progr^i-ss in North-Carolina ; and that with- 
cut very literal appcopriadons by the General A3s«nably,-ino5t 


ui" the Public Works, which have been commenced in the 
State, will he abanaoned. He is well convinced of another 
fact, although some years ago he thought otherwise, that ihc 
State ought to be the sole proprietor ot all the Public Works j 
that her Kc^ad.s, her Bridges and her CaniJi ought to be the 
common properly of her citizens ; the great highways of the 
public, fr-je to all who will travel them. 

To what objects should the fund for Internal Improvements 
be applied ? These objects are enumerated in the Instruc- 
tions which hijve been drawn up for the Principal Engineer. 
The object which first claimed the attention of the Legisla- 
ture, and that in which the people have the greatest inter st, 
is the Improvement of our Hivers. To this object it is ar- 
d' nily hoped, libel id appropriations will be made at the ensu- 
ing Legislature. These aijpropriations should be made in aid 
of the Companies which have been incorporated. Without this 
aid, there is no Company in the Slate, except the Roanoke 
Company, that can entertain a hope of executing the works 
for which they were incorporated. These Companies wtre 
formed after thi late War, during the full tide of business and 
speculation. :»'any cf the subscribers have become insolvent, 
many have moved away, others are embarrassed, and all are 
slow to make payment, Thesi Companies have received very 
little aid from the rich, independent men of the countr} .— » 
Men who are sci'^i'ing for better times, arc those who crgan° 
Bsed the Companies, and who have now the burthen of sup- 
porting them : A l)urthen that every day increases, as siibscri- 
bers btcome insolvent, embarrassed or move awav — The R )a- 
noke Company will progress, because they are aided by eighty 
thousand dollars from Virginia and twenty-five thousand from 
this State ; whilst the Yadkin Company, who require much 
more money to effect the objects of their incorp nation, tiiaa 
is required by the Roanoke Company, are aided with only 
twenty-five thousand dollars from the public, and the Cape- 
Fear Company with fifteen thousmd. The State has reserv- 
ed the riglit of increasing her subscription in the Roanoke 
Company, to eighty thousand dollars ; and it would be well 
to increase the subscription of the State to that amount in the 
Cape-Fear and Yadkin Companies. This increase of subscrip- 
tion would not enable the Companies to complete their Work 5 
but with such aid, they could make great progress, and if the 
jnoney were judiciously expended, they would do much pub- 
lic good. It is therefore proposed, that the State iacrtasehet 
Subscriptions so that she shall hold 

5fS im'ETlXAL ,IMFR:OVFMKl^-t»S 

W&e Stotk «f the Raanoke Company, ..j^jf')^^ 

Ba. Cspe-Fear Coinpanj, g€0,(.0O 

Bia, Yadkin Company, 'tO,()<)0 

©«, €at«wtjs Cempan V, 25,000 

Dft. ?i^puii<? Company, 25.000 

^Bo, * Tar K4verG<jmpatr;-, 25,000 

t.t'\s fartlver -jsropc^s^ed, tliGt appropriations be tjiade 
T« co-twpl-ete the CiuWcM^t and Harlowe Creek Canal. 
Fw nemcviisg-'obstrjctiotts in Broad Rivera 
F«r «»*fe««g a Canal from RoaBeke to Tar River1a.nd then to 
.* tfoe N»ase. 

For maktn'g Roads across tl:«M<mM tains ami through the Cli«v 

r«'kiee C'mntry. 
'For csQ'Stwictmg sue?! 'Public ^'" may be found most 

esrpedieQt i«r bringing to the" Cape- Fear, the Coranserce of 

the Fe«l«<i* and the. Catawba. 

Whtts om- lalets s^all be exawitned and plans formed for 
tlifctr improveTOeicit, let appropriations be m^de tor that ob- 
ject ; and let iil^eral approprjations be made for draining the 
Matches- and Swamps of the Southern and Eastern Counties* 
It is not proposed that all these appropriations should be 
W'scle at oae Session of the Assembly : bat that an act be 

1. Fw increasing the subscription of the State in all the Na- 

vigatioa C<Knpatiies. 
'2« Appropriating asaintiot exceeding 8150,000 annually, fcir 
seven jears, for InteruaJ Improvements. 

3. Out of this a.ppr«priatioii payments to be first mat!© to the 
Navigation Ci>mp«nles of'such Insialntents as are ca! led for 
-daring the ^jear, and ihe balance tr> be expended, first in 
the making of good roads across the Mountains and through 
tlie Cherokee CouJitry, .and secondly in the execution of 
s«ch oth^er Public Woe-ksas tite Legislature s!;al! designate, 
or the Board of Pufelic V^ orks shall think, the interests Of 
;t'>.e Sfate require. 

4. T«» form a Board of Public Works. 

5. to place aJI the Pablic Works under the general superin- 
tendance of this Board, arsd under the immediate direction of 
the Priescipai En;;tiieer — And that no further aid be given t* 
aij of «he Compaides. yntii they agree that the Works in 
which they are engag;ed, s'tall be pkced under the general 
>aui«erintendance of the Board, and the immediate direction 
of the PrtHcipal Engineer, 

TKis'plan vrouid giive system to the Public Works of the 
State ; and would ensure their speedy execution. Paltry ap- 
p'oprikitiQnH will do no good: and why shall we wait tea 
yrurs toco piete a Workwhich can be completed within five ? 
"W© caa s^seasii; itt<p!ropriui,c gl 50,000, annualiy, as 825,00©. 

1^<s difftrenee will never be felt by the people 5 'i& a©fc 
p.rc^posed to impose upon them any Tar* to laaae: thfc ssMwacy. 
"I^he expenditure of Si 50,000 aiiauallv ior sevew yeass^ spc^fe 
objects of Internal Improvement, wiU c;,ive to Noastb Cajro'iua 
a new character and add an Iruiidred iwiliio^ns t* fe.^r W4.iijho. 
Il South Carolina can expend ^250^003 per ytarap.a &iif:k 
objects, it is strange, indeed, if we cann&t raise StSCJ^OClO. 

In this plan» and in every plan which may ;>& s>ui:v,oitie<l to 
the General Asseiably, it is ,and it oagiit iobt,. a prBm<iTy oh^ 
ject, to aid the several Navigatiou Companjes* Tkcy are 
destined to perish, and that quickly, withouisucbaad. liB.tije 
next place, let a fev/ good roads, be niade acn.«ss t<ae Moya- 
tains, one to extend quite thrangh the Cherokee Coisnirv— > 
The people to the West of the Blue Ridge miist necessarily 
depend upo i land carriage j and their cocdisioB. i& eBtilicdHto 
peculiar consideration in any general plan, of Internal improve- 
ments- It IS worthy of rsnaark.^ th^t good Koads aciro&s the 
Mountains will not only sccoromodate ©uf ©wa ckizens^ to 
the West, but will dra\/ to our mtarkets on the Yadkin aad 
Catawba, a large portion of the trade., of ^E^t Tennessee jajsd 
ef several Counues in Virginia^ 

Of Moads across the Mmmiums*. 

The Yadkin and the Catawba become boatabJe within M" 
teen milt-s of the foot of the Biue Kitlge. In planniag Pub- 
lie Roads, Wilkesborougli may be talcen as the point on tbe 
Yadkin, from which they diverge in different dij-ectaons across 
thr- Mountains. One Road runs to the North into the Coun- 
ties of Grayson and Wy^he in Virginia, passing the Blue 
Ridge at the Elk Spur Gap. Two Roads run to the West ;. 
one crossing the Ridge a6 Reddy's River Gap, passes by Ashe 
Court- House, and forking, it extends to the North- West in- 
to the Counties of Russell and Washington in Virginia, and- 
to the Wtst to Jonesborough in East-Tennessee. The other, 
ca led Horton*s Turnpike, passes the Ridge at the Deep Gap, 
and runs tlirough the South-Western parts of Ashe County, 
on to Joncsborough — another Road leads from Wilkesboro* 
to the South- \Vest, passes Morganton, and crosses the Ridge 
at the Swanannoah Gap. — The Mountain can be easily pass= 
ed at each of ihese Gaps ; and if the Roads were good, the 
Inconvenience of crossing the Mountain would be disregard- 
ed. Tbe Roads have been badly iaid oat ; thf-y are badly 
atiade, and the population ia many parts is too v/eak to Jfee^ 


the Roads in even tolerable repair. All these Roads should 
be made at the puolic expense. It will not be necessary to 
make paved Koads : Such is the quality ot the soil, that nnere 
ditching en cat h side, and thrown.g up the earth in the n-id- 
dle, Will make as good Kuads as the public convenience re- 
quircs* It is believed by those who have turned their atten- 
tion to the subject, that contracts could be made tur improv- 
ing these R(*ads, in the way suggested, at less than one hun- 
dred dollars p*. r pnile, upon an average distance of an hundred 
mileso The Principal Engineer should lay out the route for 
each Road, and confine the ascent and descent within an angle 
of five degreeSc Xbis can be done ac all the Gaps. He should 
make contracts lor the Woik. and attend to its erircution.— 
"W hen the Roads are made, the people sbouW be compelled to 
1:. ep them in a state of good repairo The Principal Engineer 
should appoint the Overse. rs and assign their hands. It will 
be very easy for the Board ot Public Works to draw up a sys- 
tem of regulations upon this suliject, which will ensure the re- 
pair ol these Roads» 

Any man who vyill look upon the M jp, will at once per- 
ceive the extensive trade which thus might be concentrated at 
"Wilkesborough : and these are improvements which ivill bring 
the trade of neighbouring States into our own, whilst they, at 
the same time, accommodate a large portion of our own popu" 
lation, who can be accommodated in no other way by a system 
of Internal Improvements. All these remarks apply w ith equal 
force to the extensive country to the Wi st, the trade of which 
might be con; entrated at the head of Navigation on the Ca- 
tawba. From that point, run three Roads, one to the middle 
parts of East-Tennessee, by the way of the Yellow Moiui- 
tain ; another crossing the Blue Ridge at the Swannannoah 
Gap, passt s Buncombe Court-House, and there forking, one 
prong takes the valley of French Broad River, passes the 
Warm Springs, and enters East-Tennessee at the Painted 
Hock : The other turns to the West and leads to Haywood 
Court-House. This is decidedly the best Road in the State, 
to the West of the Blue Ridge. It is much better than most 
of the Roads to the East of the Ridge j and it is said by men 
acquainted with the country, that it can be extended through 
the Cherokee Nation, quite to the South- Western Boundary 
of the State, and be made as good to the West as it is to the 
East, except at the point where it crosses the Blue Ridge near 
the Southern Boundary ; and a hope is entertained that a good 
Gap will there be found as soon as the country can be ex- 
plored* From the head of Navigation en the Catawba, a third 


Road runs to the South- West into the county of Rutherford, 
aU'ng winch much valuablt iradt- will pass to the Catavvua, 
^vhtn that River is made navigable. 

There are two other Koads crossinf^ the Blue Ridge, which 
claim the attention ot the General Assembly. One leadiui^ 
from Buncombe Court House by the Saluda Cap, lorms the 
great Highway to South-Car' -lina and Georgia, Irom the Wes- 
tern pans ot this State, and Virginia, from Kentucky and the 
l*ionhern parts of Tennessee. It is peruaps, the most public 
Road in Noi th-Carolina ; and a Traveller is astonished ..n 
reaching Buncombe Court-Huuse, (calLd Morristown on the 
Map, but now called Ashevdle) to find people Irom six States 
in the Union, in the same Hotel. This is the Road along 
which the people of Buncomlie and Haywood trade to Colum- 
bia and Augusta. They will find a market much nearer to 
them, when the Catawba shall be made navigable. 

There is another Road leading from Buncombe Court-House 
to the South, into Ruthcriord County. The Mountain in Uiis 
direction has three Gaps, Mjif's to the West, Cooper's in the 
Middle, and Shelton's to the East, l he Mountain is difficult 
to be passed, both at Milia's and Cooper's Gaps. Shelion's 
Gap is now in the direct route and is said to be much Letter ; but 
accidental circumstances have heretofore prevented the Road 
by this Gap from being attended to. I his Road is not so im- 
portant in a commercial point of view as either of the other 
Roads which have been treated of; but merits attention, from 
the consideration, that it would open a communication between 
portions ot our people, who, being separated by a high Moua- 
taaij ar^ ia a great degree strangers to each other. 

Of the employment of a Principal Engineer. 

The want of a Principal Engineer has caused the v/aste of 
an immense sum of money. When the Navigation Compa- 
nies were first organised, hopes were entertained that an En- 
gineer would be immediately procured ; how these hopes were 
disappointed, year after year, has been heretofoie shewn. The 
State agreed, that if individuals would subscribe the money, 
she would furnish an Engineer to instruct them in their pro- 
ceedings and plan their works. The Companies being organ- 
ised, and public expectation excited, it was thought to l e ad- 
viseable to con'mence their operations, that the sprit for Im- 
provements might be kept up. They had no man of conope- 

la»t slv-'iil to plan or lay out their works ; most of the Uircc- 
iffiirs. had never seen a Cavlal or a Lock ; none of them knci? 
he»w a Canal should be made, nor how a Lock should be built ; 
ipor did ihcy know how a Kiver was to be sluiced This was 
fead enough : But the evil soon became ten times worse. Di- 
ineetors and Stockholders thought upon th« same subjects, aad 
(taiv-h soon-b; gan to form plans. In this, as in every thing else 
miich people do not understand, every naan had bis own plan, 
3i8id. was continually complaining that his plan was not adopt- 
<e(sSi- Directors disagreed, Sjockhokiers divided and farmed 
factions; no one had any confidence in the know&dge ano» 
l^r; and in this v;ay, the Companies have gone oil, spending 
tkt-ir money, and quarrcHing among themselves^ antji some'; 
%m(i become disgusted, ana all dissatisfied. There is no maii- 
"irHio has witnessed the proceedings of the Companies, who is' 
■WnM thoroughly convinced that it is utterly impossible for tr -, 
3Pfluiyi<; Works to progress, without having some man at their 
fj^ad ci compttent skill to plan, and firmness to exttute. Each 
C-cjsspany wiil save mure money, annually, by corifiding thtir 
"«'>Gsks to such a man, than the amount of his sala?;v, VVe re= 
J®Bc:c that we have, at length, procured such a man ; and it is 
Iw^ijjcd, that the Gemral Assembly will place all the Pubhc 
'^'S^a.i'ks (if the State under his immediate direciion — When thic 
isflfoae, they will progress with judgmenl and economy. 

Of (he Boundary of the State to the West. 

This State is bounded by South-Carolina to the South, fron&, 
1&<r Atlantic Ocean to the Chateaugv R)ver; and thence by.. 
C^wrgia to the line of Tennessee. The Boundary-line to the 
S(0)ath remained a subject of dispute with South-Caroiina for 
Wvire than forty years. It was finally settled a few years ago^, 
i^^v tien. jVIontfort Stukcs, Gen. John Steele, and Robert Bur- 
ifeitc,. Esquire, Commissioners on the part of this State, and 
C'cweTnor INIiddleton, Gen. Blassingham and Doctor Blythe, 
Ccoramissioners on the part of South-Carolina, assisted by Dr* 
Caklwell, of our University, and Mr. Blackburn of the Uni* 
veifsity of Columbia. The thirty- fifth degree of North Lati- 
tt-jie was to be the dividing line ; but on reaching the Blue 
Ksrfgr, it was discovered that this parallel of latitude crossed the 
li'iidge at several places ; and the Comriiissioners having dis- 
cretionarv powers, agreed to make the summit of the ridge, 
the dividing line. This line terminated oa the Chateaugy Kir 


/er, at a point where Mr. EUicott, who had been employed ibjf 
vShe State ol Georgia for that purpose, had ascertained the thij*' 
fty-fifth degree of North Latitude crossed that Kiver. He ha«£ 
liere placed a rock, lor the Nurth-Eastern corner of the State; 
of Georgnj. It remained for us to settle definitively with Geor- 
gia, ouF Boundary, Irocn this rock to the line of Tennessee* 
Until Mr, EUicott d termined the thirty-fifth degree of Norife 
'Latitude, Georgia claimed a large portion of the County 'of 
Buncotovbe, and erected a County by the name of Walton, iv. 
that quarter, and organised its civil administration. Maii^ 
very unpleasant occurrences grew out of this act of Georg^ia,; 
but they were all finally settled by Mr. EUicott. During the 
present year, the Commissioners appointed by the two States^ 
lvav€ run and marked the line on the thirty^fifth degree ^ 
-Latkude, to the point where Tennessee sets up a claim. This 
line has crossed the Blue Ridge ia several places, leaving t© 
<one State large Coves at the heads of Rivers, which policy 
$eems to require should belong to the other. The head wai- 
ters of the Tugalo, the Chatahouchy and the Turura, are le^ 
^tQ North -Carolina, and the head waters of the Tennessee and 
some other streams are left to Georgia, with the Blue Ridg& 
dividing them from all the rest of the State. The Conomis- 
:3i(.ners had no discretionary powers to fix the Boundary any 
where else than on the thirty-fifth degree of Latitude. It 
would certainly be to the interest of both States to make the. 
summit of the Blue Ridge the dividing line j and it would bcs 
desirable, if Georgia would accede to this proposition, to ap- 
point the same Gentlemen, Jesse Franklin, General Thomas 
'i-ove and James Mebane, Esquires, on the part of this State^ 
to run and mark the line with the Commissioners of Georgia 
»jon the summit of the Ridge. 

Our Western Boundary remains yet to be settled with Te*r>- 
Siessee. The difficulty upon this subject grows out of tht- Ces* 
#ioTi Act of 1789, when that act is applied to the country West 
vof the Highwassee River. The Unica Mountain terminates 
at this River J it there loses its distinctive name. The act of 
Cession declares that the line shall run from the Unica Moan»' 
tain ** along the main ridge of Mountains to the Southena 
,iJoundary of the State." In 1789, this part of the country 
.was almost^nknown, except to the Indians and to HuntcTs. 
Tennessee now alleges that there is no *' main i"idge of JMouii- 
teins"westofthe Highwassee,which crosses the Southern Boua- 
mdary of this State : That there is a ridge on the liast of High- 
wassee, extending from the Unica Mountain to the Blue Ridge, 
and that this Ridge must be pursued, otherwise we shall find ro 


Hiflge uhich will lead to the S tutht-rn Boundary. This Kicigc 
is elicit nlly lateral to the miiin Kidgts of Mountains, ai.d is 
only n Spur of these main Kidges. If the claim of T^ nnessee 
be well founded, we shall lose the most valuable part of the 
Cherokee Country I that part uhich is watered by the head 
branches of the Hjghwassee Rivet. The claim of Tennessee 
2s in opposition to the under tanciu/g of prople acqaaai ed with 
that part of the countr\ , ever since the act of Cession. It is 
yerv desirable that this claim be adjusted and the Boundary 
settled as quickly as poosibiu. 

Of our Sea Coast, mid the formation of Mliivlal 


An opinion is entertained bv many men %vho have attended 
to the physical history of our Globe, that the quantity of its 
%v;iters are constantly diminishing. This opinion is founded 
on observatiuns which have been made upon narrow seas, and 
the Lakes and Rivers of Continents. The v/aters in the Sea 
or rather Gulph of Bothnia, have been ascertained, by a long 
series of observations, to subside, regularly, between three 
and four feet in every century. The Lakes of Continents 
have been ol)3erved gradually to lessen in size, and the water 
in Rivers to diminish in quantity, as the forest is cleared a- 
way, and the climate ameliorated by the cultivation,of the soiL 
From the regular subsidence of the '.vater in narrow seas, where 
accurate ol)servations can be made, aa opinion is entertained, 
that a like subsidence takes place in the Oceans with which 
those narrow Seas are connecttd. From what causes this sub= 
faidence Takes place, whether from jtn actual diminution of the 
waters of the globe, or from the gradual deepening of the bed 
of the Ocean by the agitation of its v/aters and the force of 
those strong currents v/hich sweep across in diflVrent direc-^ 
tions, is not material to the present subject. It is very evi- 
dent, that from the Gulph of Florida to the Chesapeake, a tract 
of country extending sixty miles, generally, from the Otean, 
is of very recent formation. In North-Carolina, great part 
of this country is not yet elevated fifteen feet above the level 
of the Ocean, much of it, not ten feet. This part of the con- 
tinent is evidently extending itself to the East ; it is checked 
in its progress by the Gulf Stream, and subjected by this 
stream lo continual changes. It is further subject to change 
by the constant accumulation of alluvial earth, brought do^^ri 


%ar Rivers and deposited near their mouths. The change proA 
duced ov this ci^use upon our Coast is not so rapid, and there- 
lore not s> mach ncjiiccd, as on the coasts ol narrow Seas 
wiiich litive iiuld or no tides. 

Muj >r Kcnnell, in his work on " the Geographical System 
of Hi rodotas," has explained the fornii'io \ ot" the Dehaof E- 
g'. pt ; ;uid in this t-!iplanaiion, has iliubtrated the gcncrd princi- 
ples ol idhivial foi maiions. His obs r^•ations on th s subject will 
bt toLUid interesting lo th se who are acquainted with our Coast, 
and have noticed itschan,5es. Bis observations arr as follow. 

••' N ) doubt when we carry back our ideas to the time when 
fhe sea wished the base of the rock, on which the Pyramids 
of Mr-iUjihis sr..t:id, the present base of which is washed by 
the inandatv).! of tiie Nile, at an elevation, most probably, of 
''^seventy or eighty feet ab()ve the surface of the same sea, we 
4»re lost in the contemplation of the vast interval of time, that necessarily have elapsed, since the foundation of the 
i)i Ita was first laid. But, appearances apeak too clear a lan- 
guage t(; he misu ulerstood ; and we are borne out in the sup- 
position that the t)clta has been formed piece meal, by a 
process which we shall now endeavor to describe — fhe fol- 
lowing may accordingly ')e taken, as a specimen )f the pro- 
gress o! A.llavion ; and which may be seen in all the different 
stages of the process, at the m lath of any large River that 
deposits rapidly and plentifully. 

**" All Rivers preserve, to a certain extent of space, which 
is prop >rrioned to the velocity of their streams, a current of 
Water into the sea, beyond the points of land that form tneir 
Embouchures ; when by the continued resistance of the sea, 
thev at last lose their motion. I'he mud and land suspiaded 
in these waters during their motion, are deposited wneil that 
motion ceases ; or rather, they are gradually deposited, aa 
the current slackens, according to the gravity of the substan- 
ces that are sispende 1. This depositi jn, then, will form a 
bank -^r shallow, in the sea ; anfl whic.i will be of a Fan-hke 
shape^ c jnsistentlv with the form, in which the water of rile 
River disperses itself. This baak is of very considerable 
'.)ieadLh, and of course, is constantly on tiie increas*^ in hcighth, 
as well as extension ; and the additions made to its !)readtli 
will be on the side towards the sea. Until the bank tises ip 
near t > the surface, the river water which is poured continu- 
ally in':o the sea, escapes freely over it ; but when the baaic 
has risen so high, is to inclose the v/ iter in a kind of Lake 
it is thsa compelled to forc- its way through the bank i aU 



though the passage will be both narrow and shallow', whilst. 
tht: bank remains under water. 1 iiis passage is tecluiicaily 
nanned a Bar ; tor sucn it is, in respect oi the channel oi liic 
River, although it be the deepest part ot liie entrance to it. 

"• 1 he position ot this opening through tne bank, vvili l>c 
regulated by the direction ot the stream of the Hiver, at it'^ 
termination in the sea ; and this direction agaui, by the pre- 
valent motion ot the sea alorsg the coast ; the mouth ot the 
River ahvays falling obliquely into the line ot the sea current. 
Accordingly, when the River enters the sea obliquely, the bar 
will be at one side of the bank ; and on that siae which is 
the farthest down, in respect of the sea current. Hut u the 
River enter the sea, in a line perpendicular to its E-hore, the 
opening or bar will be through the miudlc of the i3ank. 

*' As the bank rises to the surface, the optiung increases 
in depth and width, until it becomes absolutely a cuntinuauon 
of the course of the River ; since its waters require the same 
breadth and d^pth to escape here, as in the ujjper parts oj its 
course. And tlius the upper part of the bank becomes gradual- 
ly a portion ot the firm land, whilst the outer part goes on ac- 
cumulating, and the bar is gradually removed further out; in 
elfect, there will be a repetition"of the same order of things. 
And hence it will clearly appear, that the bank thus laid in the 
current of the River, is, in reality, the germ ol the giowiiig 

" The bars are usually sv/ept away every season, by the 
periodical flood : which, although it cannot rise to a higher 
level than the sea, is increased in velocity, by the increase of 
the i)ody of water, above ; and also by that of its descent : as 
the flood swells to a greater height alcove, and, thcrdore iorms 
a slope towards the sea. These floods also bring the great- 
est addition to the growing alluvion ; and not unfrequently^ 
(phange the direction of the channel, and with it, ot course, 
the position of the bar ; their depositions being laid farther 
out in the sea, by reason of the greater vtlocit) of the cur- 
Sf nt. 

" Having endeavored to explain the mode in which the al 
luvion gains on the sea, we shall next endeavour to explain 
the manner in which the changes and modifications of the ex- 
isting alluvions are wrought. 

** The alluvions thus formed in the sea, are. In tht-ir original 
state, flat, and are also on a level with the ordinary surface of 
the sea; but as the surge repels that part of the deposited 
Blatter, which rises to the surface, it will be raised somewhat 
^bove the level : and as this agency has regularlv operated 
>£>:: all ths neT>'=made alluvion^ it must have formed one con- 


tiivied level, but for the interposition of the periodical floods, 
waich have form d u into a regular slope, corresponding With 
tiuir own. 

*' \s toe alluvion then, is extended into the sea, so is its 
k'Vci ■^riidoaUy raised into a slope : an operation that is con- 
s,'.auUy gor.sij,- forward, but w;iicn cannot keep pace witn the 
exLcnsiou, because every addition to it occusious a deficiency 
in the slope. 

*' iJatil the new formed alluvion was considerably raised, it 
mast have partaken very much of the character given it by 
Herodotus ; who says, that in ancient times, •• The vvnole of 
E^ypt, except the province of FheOes, was one extended 
marsh ; and when the xSTue rose to the hcignt ol eight cuoits, 
all the lands above Meiiijihis were oversowed.' Tnese tra- 
ditions clearly point to a state of thiagfs nad existed, al- 
th jjjjh probably at a period too remote to be nxed : For 
there must have been a tine when the D.lta was not only a 
marsh, bat was even covered wiih vrater ; and when the sea 
must have advanced so near to ths scite of Jvl^iinpais, as to 
allow th.i annual il jod to rise no tiigner than ciyai cubits, or 
twelve to fourteen feet at that place, rleroiocus remirics, 
that it rose fif.een or sixteen cubits in nis ; whtch was the 
natural progress of thln^js, as the point of contact ot the land 
waters, and tbose of the sea was reauved iurther out. 

" So long as the alluvion of tae Delta remained m the state 
of a marsh, the waters of the Nile, through die want of decli- 
vity ta carry them off, and the pressure of the sea water from 
wittiout, when the Kiver was low, may be supposed to have 
iormed a tissue of Canals, interspersed witlx Lakes and 
Marshes — But when the land began to acquire some solidity 
in the upper parts of the D.dta, Canals, in the nature of drains, 
v/>uld be formed by the hands of man, and Dyk-^s raised along 
the banks of Rivers, in order to exclude the redundant waters 
from the appropriated lands. And this is probably the period 
referred to by Herodotus, when he describes ' the \Mb t and 
naaierous Canals by which Egypt is intersected ;' and which 
he attributes to Sesosiris. He was also told that the same 
Prince made a regular distribution of the lands of Egypt, as- 
signing to each Egyptian a square piece of ground : and that 
his revenues were drawn froni the rent which every indivi- 
dual annually paid him. 

*' As the land rose by depositions, the v/aters would naturally 
confine themselves to fewer channels ; since the land in a fir- 
mer state, would require a greater force to divide it. At a 
time when the upper part of the Delta had acquired si degree 


oT fiimness and ckvation, we Karn fiom lit. rodotus, ihn, 
three naluial channels conveyed ihe waters oi tlie Nik- to the 
neighborhood ol lite sea : a quarter in which the alluvial land 
must ever be regarded as in an imperieet state of ionnaiion. 
At present, two t>nl} convey those waters to the same quar- 
ter, during the season when the Rivtr is not swolen ,* anu one 
ol these is growing shallow — Can it be doubted, then, that a 
Delta is (comparai-ivcty speakmg) land in an iniperfect state 
of formation ; thai the natural progress towards completion, 
is that ot the Rivers, confining itself to ltW(.r channels : 
and that the inundation, from being a complete mass of wa« 
ter, spread untfoinrdy over the country, becomes rtierely an 
overflowing of the kiver, extending to a certain distance, and 
fojmingthe country adjacent to e.ich bank, into a slope of bc- 
veral miles in breadth, of which the highest partis the crest of 
the bank itself, from the circumstance of its depositing more 
sediment near the bark, than at a distance from it? — But as 
long as the alluvion continued too fiat to c(>mmunicate a snf- 
ficient velocity to the Hiver, when in its low state, it would 
continue to separate itself into many d ifFe rent streams, althfugti 
one of them would pvo!)ably surpass all the rest in i)ulk. On 
the above princijiles, then, as the greater slope extends itself 
downwards, the Delta ought to retire from it ; or in other 
words, the River, in its coiirse through the high level, should 
flow unique; and the base of the Delta should gradually con= 
tract ; and this satisfactorily appears to have been the case." 

These observations of Major Kennel explain the manner in 
which the Southern and Eastern parts of this State have brea 
formed ; and the) will aid us in iorming opinions as to the 
future probable condition of the Inlets on our Coast. This 
subject has received new illustrations from Monsieur Proney, 
Director General of the Public Works of France. Some time 
ago, he visited Italy by direction of the late Emperor, to vit-w 
the Pontine Marshes near Rome, and report upon the pr.icti- 
cability of draining them. Whilst in Italy, his attention was 
also directed to the Rivtrs of that countrv, particularly the 
Adige and the Po. He published an Essay upon the alluvions 
of the Rivers of Italy, which Monsieur Cnivter has annexed 
to his work on the Theory of the P'arlh. Tnis Essay contains 
facts and reasonings which will be found highly interesting to 
men engaged in public works, on a coast that is affected by al-